Biotechnology is an area with a tremendous potential
in solving basic problems of food, fibre, fuel and medicine, particularly
in developing Asian countries.
It can become versatile tool for Mass multiplication
of elite clones, Elimination of disease in planting material, Creation
of Super genotypes of agricultural crops, Which hither to it was not
possible through conventional plant breeding methods.
Tissue culture propagation can greatly enhance our
ability to produce consistently uniform superior planting material for
export and domestic market.
Advantages of tissue culture raised plants against
the conventionally propagated (by suckers) plants were clearly demonstrated
in banana Field trials.
Superiority of Tissue Cultured quality plants in terms
of developed root system, greater functional leaf area leading to high
photosynthetic rate and higher yields in now well established.
The technology can improve continuously, the productivity,
profitability, stability and sustainability of the farming system.
Each plant cell has the potential to generate into
a single plant. This is called Totipotency and when this character is
involved into rapid and mass multiplication of propagules at optimum
levels is called Micropropagation. This is an alternate to slow vegetative
In Tissue Culture when a group of undifferentiated
and meristamatically active cell called Tissue is aseptically disserted
out and put into a medium containing nutrient and incubated under conducive
controlled conditions of light and temperature, it establish it self
and starts growth. This is called Culture and the concept of 'tissue
culture' was thus conceived.
Tissue culture involved following stages
Preparation of Stock plant
The elite plants are selected and maintained
under hygenic conditions (by spraying fungicide, bactericide and insecticide)
and then the plant parts are taken for initiation.
Initiation (Stage-1) :
The innermost tissue of surface sterilised plant
in dissected aseptically and put an to the medium of growth, Medium
contains major and miner elements, same vitamins. Amino acids and growth
promoting hormones, solidified by agar.
Multiplication (Stage II) :
When the tissue starts growth in stage I and forms
a shoot it is transferred to another medium containing growth promoting
hormones (enhancing cell division).
The growing shoot multiplies and forms a dump
of 3-4 shoots. Those are transferred to another medium for shooting
and rooting after optimum growth.
Shooting and Rooting (Stage III) :
After multiplication, the single shoots are separated
and placed into a shooting are rooting medium. At this stage the hormones
may or may not be required.
The shoot elongates and new root came up. Rooting
takes place within 3-4 weeks.
Hardening (Stage IV) :
It involves acclimatisation of bottle grown plants
to the natural environment in Green House.
The plants are taken out of the bottle and the
media adhering to the root system in washed fully.
After wards the plants are graded as per their
size and then transferred singly to wells of portrays containing sterile
medium (a mixture of peat moss and perlite).
The whole portray with plants is maintained under high
humidity conditions for a couple of weeks and there after the portrays
are kept in open in the Green House under controlled temperature and
This hardening taken 6 weeks and is called primary
hardening - Regular sprays of plant protection chemicals are sprayed
to achieve good hygenic condition of the plants.
Marketing Potential (Both Domestic And International)
There is a good export market for banana particularly
to the countries / places like. UAE, Dubai, Sharjah and AbuDhabi, Saudi
Arabia, Qatar, Countries, Singapore, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Malaysia.
Small portions of banana are exported to the above
Countries from the merchant exporters. No one has registered so far
with the APEDA, Bangalore as exclusive growing / manufacturer exporters.
Lot of incentives are available from APEDA for fruit
exporters like Air freight subsidy financial assistance for inter national
publicity to identify suitable irrigator, for the development of package
for international standards.
To utilise that benefit the farm is to be registered
with APEDA as export oriented unit.
There is also assured domestic market for banana
for high quality banana in Indian cities.