Brinjal

Insect Management

Brinjal Mealybug Egg Plant Lacebug Japanese Beetle Leaf Feeding Beetle Leaf Hoppers Leaf Roller Leaf Webber Little Leaf Red Spider Mite Shoot And Fruit Borer Stem Borer > Whitefly

Brinjal Mealy Bug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera)

Marks of identification

  • The bugs are small, oval, soft-bodied insects measuring 3-4 mm long, covered with white mealy wax.

Nature of damage

  • Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves and tender shoots.
  • Heavy clustering of mealy bugs usually seen under surface of leaves as a thick mat with waxy secretion.
  • They also excrete copious amount of honey dew on which the fungus sooty mould grow.
  • Affected plants appear sick and black, resulting reduced fruiting capacity.

Alternate host

  • Polyphagous, feeding on variety of plants belonging to malvaceae, solanaceae and leguminaceae.

Biology

  • Females have reproductive potential of laying 200-300 eggs, majority of which are female resulting in explosive outbreak.
  • Eggs are incubated beneath their body cavity for about 4-5 days.
  • There are three nymphal instars which lasts for 22-25 days.
  • Total life period from egg to adult is 26-30 days under normal conditions.

Management

Remove and burn the severely affected plants, to prevent further spread of the pest.
Spray any one of the following insecticides at 15 days intervals Dichlorvas 75 WSC
1 ml/litre, Monocrotophos 36 WSC 1.5 ml/litre, Methyl demeton 25 EC 2 ml/litre.
Thorough coverage is a must.


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Egg plant Lace bug:

Gargaphia solani, Urentius hystericellus ,U. sentis

Family:

Tingidae

Order:

Hemiptera

Specific pests of brinjal, common in North- Western regions of India.

Description

Adult

Adult damage on upper surface of leaf

  • The prothorax (area behind the head) of this grey and light brown bug has a hood-like projection which extends out over the body and comes to a point over the wings.
  • Adults (3 mm), straw coloured dorsally and dark brown to blackish ventrally.
  • Pronotum and fore wings are reticulated consisting of irregular thick lines forming a frame work of cells; and two pairs of lace-like wings which are black at the base, coastal area hyaline with strong spines on the outer margin; hind wings
  • whitish and transparent
  • The bug has a dark head, pale yellow legs,
  • The body appears flattened and is about 4 mm long and 2 mm wide.

Egg

  • The 0.4-mm-long, oval-elongate egg appears almost bottle-shaped.
  • Female lays eggs singly in leaf tissues. Life cycle is completed in 15-30 days.
  • Greenish at the base and brown towards the tip, the egg has a crater-like depression in one end with a white, lace-like border.
  • All eggs in each roughly circular clusters are deposited on end and lean in different directions.

Nymph

Nymphs on the lower surface of leaf

  • About 2 to 3 mm long, the mature nymph is yellow with a dark spot at the tip of the abdomen.
  • The body is covered with spines.
  • Nymphs are pale yellowish-brown with prominent spines.

Host Plants

  • The eggplant lace bug has a narrow host range.
  • Its food plants include tomato, potato, sunflower and cotton.

Damage

Severly infested plant

  • Circular discolored areas about the size of a quarter are the first noticeable symptoms of lace bug damage.
  • The remains of an egg mass and a group of nymphs typically are found on the underside of each discolored spot.
  • Lace bugs gradually move outward until the whole leaf yellows and dries out.
  • Feeding in groups, they move from leaf to leaf and eventually to new plants.
  • A severe lace bug infestation may kill whole plants or weaken them to the point that fruit fails to develop.

Life History

  • They emerge and lay eggs in mid- to late May.
  • Each female spends 4 to 5 days depositing 100 to 200 eggs in a roughly circular mass on the underside of a leaf.
  • The female guards her eggs against predators.
  • When the eggs hatch about 6 days later, the female continues to guard her offspring. Nymphs feed and move as a colony, guided by the adult female.
  • Molting every other day, nymphs develop through five instars and become adults in about 10 days.
  • Several days may elapse before adults of the new generation mate and deposit more eggs.
  • Approximately 6 annual generations occur on eggplant.

Control

  • Brinjal lace bugs are preyed upon by lady beetle larvae and adults, spiders, and shield-shaped soldier bugs.
  • If the bugs appear in large numbers dust Endosulfan or Carbaryl 2g/liter or spray Dichlorvos @ 1.5ml/liter of water.

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Japanese Beetle:

Popillia japonica

Family:

Scarabaeidae,

Order:

Coleoptera

Adult

  • About 13 mm long, this shiny, metallic green beetle has coppery brown wing covers, which extend almost to the tip of the abdomen.
  • Two small tufts of white hairs occur just behind the wing covers on each side of the body. Five more white patches are located on each side of the abdomen.

Egg

  • White or cream colored egg is spherical and about 1.5 mm in diameter when first laid in turf.
  • By the time it hatches, the egg has doubled its original size.

Larva

  • The grayish-white, slightly curled grub has a yellowish-brown head and measures about 26 mm long when mature.
  • It can be distinguished from other white grubs by two rows of spines which form a "V" on the underside of its last abdominal segment.

Pupa

  • The cream colored pupa, approximately 13 mm long and 6 mm wide, gradually turns light brown and finally develops a metallic green cast.

Host Plants

  • Adult Japanese beetles infest over 275 different plants including most vegetable crops.
  • Shade and fruit trees, ornamental shrubs, small fruits, garden crops, weeds, and field crops often are damaged also.
  • The grubs are serious pests of lawns, other grasses, and nursery stock.

Damage

  • Gregarious in nature, Japanese beetle adults are often found feeding in masses on flowers, foliage, or fruit of a few plants leaving others nearby uninfested.
  • On most hosts, including okra, leaves are skeletonized and mature fruit is damaged.
  • Injury to corn occurs when beetles feed heavily on the silks and ear tips, sometimes reducing pollination and predisposing the ear to other insect damage and fungal infections.
  • In localized spots, larvae injure the developing root systems of grass crops or weeds.

Life History

  • The grubs overwinter in cells within 13 cm of the soil surface.
  • In spring they move upward, almost to ground level, where they complete feeding and pupate.
  • The three larval instars complete development in about 140 days.
  • Adults emerge as early as mid-May
  • Throughout summer they attack the fruit and foliage of many plants including silks of corn.
  • Soon after emerging females deposit 40 to 60 eggs in small batches 5 to 8 cm deep in the ground.
  • Under extremely dry conditions, many eggs and larvae perish.
  • However, during warm, set summers populations thrive and eggs hatch about 2 weeks after deposition.
  • Newly emerged larvae feed until cold weather forces them into hibernation. Only one generation occurs each year.

Control

  • Milky spore disease and several parasites often attack beetle grubs and thereby keep Japanese beetle adult populations below economically damaging levels.
  • Spray Carbaryl 3g/litre of water when infestation is severe.

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Leaf Feeding Beetles:

Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata,

Epilachna dodecastigma

Family:

Coccinellidae

Order:

Coleoptera

Commonly occurs throughout south-east Asia.
Also attack bitter gourd, bottle gourd, potato and tomato.

Adults

Egg mass of leaf feeding beetle

  • Adults are spherical, pale yellowish brown elytra mottled with black spots.
  • A total of 28 spots are found on H. vigintioctopunctata while E.dodecastigma has 12 spots.
  • Female lays as may as 120 to 180 eggs, Yellowish, elongated, cigar-shaped eggs are laid in batches, generally on lower
  • surface of leaves, with their tips pointing which are in batches of 30 to 35 in number.
  • They hatch in 2 to 4 days and spiny, yellowish grubs start feeding on the epidermis of leaves.

Grubs

Grub of leaf feeding beetle

  • Grubs are yellowish with spines all over body.
  • Pupation is on leaves, pupae are hemispherical.
  • Life cycle is completed in 25-50 days.

Symptoms

Scraping on leaf surface

Infested fruit


Infested leaves

  • Both grubs and adults feed by scraping chlorophyll from epidermal layers of leaves, leaving the veins and veinlets, and
  • cause characteristic skeletonized patches on the leaves and forming ladder-like windows.
  • In severe cases even calyx of the fruit may also be infested.
  • Later, the affected areas on leaves dry and falloff and damage appears in the form of holes in the leaves.

Control

  • Collect and destroy egg masses and skeletonised leaves with adults and grubs.
  • If infestation is severe Endosulfan 2 ml/litre of water, Carbaryl 2g/litre of water or Dichlorvos 2ml/litre of water may be sprayed.
  • Hand picking of grubs and collection of beetles by handnets in the early stages of attack is recommended for smallholdings.

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Leafhoppers : Empoasca devastans

  • The adult is wedge-shaped, about 2mm. Long and pale green in colour.
  • The forewings have a black spot on their posterior parts.
  • The nymphs are wingless, pale green in colour and are found in large numbers on the lower surface of the leaves.
  • They have a characteristic way of walking diagonally in relation to their body.

Nature of damage and host plants

  • The nymphs and adults pierce the plant tissues and suck the cell sap by their mouthparts.
  • Initial damage is noticed curling up, followed by the yellowing of the margins of leaves, while a continued excessive
  • infestation may result in etiolating of the leaves and subsequently stunted growth of plants.
  • A little-leaf, a virus disease is transmitted by E.devastans from diseases to healthy eggplants.

Life History

Hopper nymph

Adult hopper

  • The adult female lays about 15 to 300 eggs in the leaf tissues and the minute nymphs emerge out of the eggs in 4 to 11 days.
  • The nymphs moult five times.
  • The life cycle is completed in 14 to 30 days.
  • About 11 generation have been observed in a year, the duration of each varying from 15 to 46 days, but there is considerable overlapping.
  • The insect is not known to hibernate and if the conditions are favorable rapid multiplication takes place.
  • The adults are generally long-lived and can tide over during adverse climatic conditions.

Control measures

  • Spraying of systemic insecticides like Monocrotophos or Phasphomidon or Dimethoate @ of 2ml/litre of water is very effective. Repeat it 2 to 3 times at the interval of 10 days.
  • Spraying 0.3 percent malathion has given very satisfactory results against adults and nymphs.
  • Apply recommended doses of Nitrogenous fertilizers.

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Leaf Roller:

Antoba (Eublemma) olivacea

Family:

Noctuidae

Order:

Lepidoptera

Occurrence

  • Common foliage pest of brinjal.
  • Attacks other wild solanaceous plants as well found throughout India.

Adults

Larva of leaf roller

  • Medium sized brownish white moths
  • Fore wings with brown tinge having a large triangular olive-green patch on outer area
  • Hind wings white with brownish tinge towards outer margin.
  • Eggs are laid on leaves.
  • Full grown caterpillars (20 mm) are stout, purple brown and ornamented with yellow spots and hair.
  • Pupation is in folded leaves.

Symptoms

Leaf roller damage

  • The caterpillars bore in the green shoots of the brinjal and eat the internal matter, resulting the plant to wither.
  • The larvae also roll up the leaves and feed on the green matter while remaining inside the folds and thus lead a concealed life
  • Ultimately the folded leaves wither and dry up.
  • Main host plant is brinjal, but it attacks many other wild solanceous plants.

Control

  • Normally the populations are not high enough to warrant any chemicals.
  • If situations require the pest may be controlled by spraying Endosulfan @2ml/litre of water.

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Leafwebber:

Psara bipunctalis

Family:

pyralidae

Order:

Lepidoptera

Leaf webber larvae

  • A minor pest found throughout India.
  • Moths are straw coloured having black dots and wavy lines on all the wings.
  • Eggs are laid in batches on under surface of leaves.
  • Full-grown caterpillars are stout, greenish with black spots and 24-28 mm long.
  • Pupation is in soil.
  • Life cycle is completed in about one month.

Symptoms

Leaf webber damage

  • On hatching caterpillars scrape and feed on epidermal tissues
  • Later web the leaves with silken strands and feed on ventral surface of leaves, skeletonizing completely.

Control

  • Removal and destruction of webbed leaves can check the damage.
  • If severe, spray Endosulfan 2ml/litre, Carbaryl 2g/litre or Chlorpyriphos 2ml/litre of water.

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Little Leaf :

Pbytoplasma sp.

  • Serious disease all over India.

Symptoms

Young plant affected with little leaf

Little leaf symptoms

  • The characteristic symptom is the small or little leaves.
  • The petioles are so short that the leaves appear to be sticking to the stem.
  • Affected plants have narrow, soft, smooth and yellow leaves.
  • Newly formed leaves are much more shorter.
  • lnternodes of the stem are also shortened.
  • Axillary buds get enlarged but their petioles and leaves also remain shortened giving the plant a bushy appearance.
  • Mostly there is no flowering but if flowers are formed they remain green. Fruiting is rare.
  • The phytoplasma is transmitted by the Plant hopper Hishimonas phycitis .

Control

  • Pusa Purple Round is tolerant to little leaf.
  • The severity of the disease can be reduced by destruction of affected plants and spraying of insecticides like Methyl demeton 1 ml/litre or Malathion 3 ml/litre of water.

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Red Spider Mite :

Tetranychus urticae (Tetranychidae : Acarina)

Adult red spider mite

  • Highly polyphagous and has a world-wide distribution.
  • Adults are ovate, reddish brown with four pairs of legs.
  • Eggs are globular and whitish.
  • Larvae (Ist instar nymphs) are pinkish with three pairs of legs while nymphs (later instars) are greenish-red, look like the
  • larvae, but have four pairs of legs.
  • Life cycle is completed in about 20 days.

Symptoms

Silken web by red spider mite

  • Colonies of mites are found feeding on ventral surface of leaves under protective cover of fine silken webs, resulting in
  • yellow spots on dorsal surface of leaves
  • Affected leaves gradually curl, get wrinkled and crumpled.
  • In heavy infestations even fruits are affected.

Control

  • Sulphur dust, or sprays of wettable sulphur 2g /litre, Ethion or Dicofol @ 2ml/litre of water are recommended.

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Shoot And Fruit Borer:

Leucinodes orbonalis

Family:

pyralidae

Order:

Lepidoptera

Occurence

  • Most destructive pest of brinjal, found throughout the country.
  • Also attacks potato and other solanaceous crops.
  • Active throughout the year, except in severe cold weather in North India.

Adults

Shoot and fruit borer adult moth


Larva of shoot and fruit borer

  • Moths are medium sized
  • Fore wings are white having conspicuous black and brown patches and dots
  • Hind wings are opalescent with black dots.
  • Eggs are flattened, elliptical, laid singly on leaves, shoots, flower buds and occasionally on fruits.
  • Full grown caterpillars are light pink in colour.
  • Life cycle is completed in 25-40 days.

Symptoms

Shoot borer damaged plant


Fruit damaged by larva

  • In young plants caterpillars bore into petioles and midribs of large leaves and young tender shoots.
  • Fecal pellets are seen at entrance hole.
  • When the infestation is on shoots, they bend down and whither, affected leaves and shoot wither and dry.
  • The larvae also attack the fruits making their entry under the calyx when they are young, leaving no visible signs of infestation
  • At later stage of growth, caterpillars bore into flower buds and fruits, sometimes from under the calyx, when no visible symptoms are apparent.
  • Damaged flower buds are shed and fruits show circular holes.
  • The large holes seen on fruits are usually the exit holes of the caterpillars.
  • The content of vitamin C in the fruits of the brinjal is found to be reduced.

Control

  • Removal and destruction of withered and dried shoots help in arresting the spread of the pest.
  • Endosulfan, Carbaryl, Fenvalerate, Cypermethrin or Deltamethrin are recommended.
  • Synthetic pyrethroids in hot weather are less effective.
  • Continuous cropping of the brinjal leads to more infestation and hence should not be indulged in.
  • Brinjal with long, narrow fruits are less susceptible to attack and, therefore, this variety should be preferred than other varieties.

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Stem Borer :

Euzophera perticella

Family :

pyralidae

Order :

Lepidoptera

Occurrence

  • Widely distributed all over Indian sub- continent.
  • Also attacks chilli, tomato and at times even potato.

Adults

Larvae in cut open stem

  • Moths are medium sized
  • Fore wings pale or greyish brown with distinct dentate vertical black lines beyond middle of the wing
  • Hind wings are whitish.
  • Eggs are laid singly or in clusters on young leaves, petioles or tender shoots.
  • Full grown caterpillars are 16-18 mm long and whitish.
  • Pupation is in stem.
  • Life cycle is completed in 30-60 days.

Symptoms

Stem borer damaged plant

  • It is a widespread pest of the cultivated brinjal in the plains throughout India, the most destructive pest of this crop.
  • The infested plant withers up and presents a stunted growth due to the feeding activities of the caterpillar on the tissues of the stem.
  • Generally attack is at later stage of crop growth.
  • Soon after hatching the caterpillar bores into stem near the ground level and moves downwards.
  • Pencil-thick and woody stem is preferred.
  • Attacked plants wither and wilt, growth is stunted and fruiting capacity is adversely affected.

Control

  • Avoid ratooning of brinjal crop, since woody stem is preferred by the larva.
  • Spray Endosulphan @2ml/litre of water or Quinolphose 2ml or Carbaryl 3g/litre of water.

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Whitefly :

Bemisia tabaci

Family:

Aleyrodidae

Order:

Homoptera

Occurrence

  • Found throughout India.
  • Polyphagous in nature with its main hosts as cotton, tobacco, and some winter vegetables
  • Sporadically severe on brinjal and tomato.

Adults

White fly adults

  • Adults are tiny, moth-like white body including wings which are covered with a white waxy bloom.
  • Eggs are pear shaped, light-yellowish with short stalks inserted into tomato leaves.
  • Nymphs are oval, scale-like and greenish white.

Symptoms

Honey dew on leaf surface

  • On hatching nymphs crawl a little, settle down on a succulent spot on ventral surface of leaf, and keep sucking sap.
  • Affected parts become yellowish, leaves wrinkle, curl downwards and are ultimately shed.
  • Honeydew excreted by nymphs attracts sooty molds which form black coating on leaves.

Control

  • If 5-10 whiteflies are noticed per leaf, spray Triazophos 2.5 ml or Profenophos 2.0 ml/litre of water.
  • Do not spray synthetic pyrethroids like Deltamethrin, Cypermethrin and Fenvalerate as it leads to resurgence.
  • For the control of white fly invariably use knapsack sprayers with high spray fluid.
  • As the flies are attracted to yellow colour, place yellow plates / tins with grease so that the attracted flies get stuck to the grease.

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About Brinjal
Brinjal Management