Egg Plant Lacebug
Leaf Feeding Beetle
Red Spider Mite
Shoot And Fruit Borer
Stem Borer > Whitefly
Brinjal Mealy Bug, Coccidohystrix
insolita (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera)
Marks of identification
The bugs are small, oval, soft-bodied insects
measuring 3-4 mm long, covered with white mealy wax.
Nature of damage
Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves
and tender shoots.
Heavy clustering of mealy bugs usually seen under
surface of leaves as a thick mat with waxy secretion.
They also excrete copious amount of honey dew
on which the fungus sooty mould grow.
Affected plants appear sick and black, resulting
reduced fruiting capacity.
Polyphagous, feeding on variety of plants belonging
to malvaceae, solanaceae and leguminaceae.
Females have reproductive potential of laying
200-300 eggs, majority of which are female resulting in explosive outbreak.
Eggs are incubated beneath their body cavity
for about 4-5 days.
There are three nymphal instars which lasts for
Total life period from egg to adult is 26-30
days under normal conditions.
Remove and burn the severely affected plants, to prevent
further spread of the pest.
Spray any one of the following insecticides at 15 days intervals Dichlorvas
1 ml/litre, Monocrotophos 36 WSC 1.5 ml/litre, Methyl demeton 25 EC 2
Thorough coverage is a must.
Egg plant Lace bug:
Gargaphia solani, Urentius hystericellus ,U. sentis
Specific pests of brinjal, common in North- Western
regions of India.
Adult damage on upper surface of leaf
The prothorax (area behind the head) of this
grey and light brown bug has a hood-like projection which extends out
over the body and comes to a point over the wings.
Adults (3 mm), straw coloured dorsally and dark
brown to blackish ventrally.
Pronotum and fore wings are reticulated consisting
of irregular thick lines forming a frame work of cells; and two pairs
of lace-like wings which are black at the base, coastal area hyaline
with strong spines on the outer margin; hind wings
whitish and transparent
The bug has a dark head, pale yellow legs,
The body appears flattened and is about 4 mm
long and 2 mm wide.
The 0.4-mm-long, oval-elongate egg appears almost
Female lays eggs singly in leaf tissues. Life
cycle is completed in 15-30 days.
Greenish at the base and brown towards the tip,
the egg has a crater-like depression in one end with a white, lace-like
All eggs in each roughly circular clusters are
deposited on end and lean in different directions.
Nymphs on the lower surface of leaf
About 2 to 3 mm long, the mature nymph is yellow
with a dark spot at the tip of the abdomen. The body is covered with spines.
Nymphs are pale yellowish-brown with prominent spines.
The eggplant lace bug has a narrow host range.
Its food plants include tomato, potato, sunflower
Severly infested plant
Circular discolored areas about the size of a
quarter are the first noticeable symptoms of lace bug damage.
The remains of an egg mass and a group of nymphs
typically are found on the underside of each discolored spot.
Lace bugs gradually move outward until the whole
leaf yellows and dries out.
Feeding in groups, they move from leaf to leaf
and eventually to new plants.
A severe lace bug infestation may kill whole
plants or weaken them to the point that fruit fails to develop.
They emerge and lay eggs in mid- to late May.
Each female spends 4 to 5 days depositing 100
to 200 eggs in a roughly circular mass on the underside of a leaf.
The female guards her eggs against predators.
When the eggs hatch about 6 days later, the female
continues to guard her offspring. Nymphs feed and move as a colony,
guided by the adult female.
Molting every other day, nymphs develop through
five instars and become adults in about 10 days.
Several days may elapse before adults of the
new generation mate and deposit more eggs.
Approximately 6 annual generations occur on eggplant.
Brinjal lace bugs are preyed upon by lady beetle
larvae and adults, spiders, and shield-shaped soldier bugs.
If the bugs appear in large numbers dust Endosulfan
or Carbaryl 2g/liter or spray Dichlorvos @ 1.5ml/liter of water.
About 13 mm long, this shiny, metallic green
beetle has coppery brown wing covers, which extend almost to the tip
of the abdomen.
Two small tufts of white hairs occur just behind
the wing covers on each side of the body. Five more white patches are
located on each side of the abdomen.
White or cream colored egg is spherical and about
1.5 mm in diameter when first laid in turf.
By the time it hatches, the egg has doubled its
The grayish-white, slightly curled grub has a
yellowish-brown head and measures about 26 mm long when mature.
It can be distinguished from other white grubs
by two rows of spines which form a "V" on the underside of
its last abdominal segment.
The cream colored pupa, approximately 13 mm long
and 6 mm wide, gradually turns light brown and finally develops a metallic
Adult Japanese beetles infest over 275 different
plants including most vegetable crops.
Shade and fruit trees, ornamental shrubs, small
fruits, garden crops, weeds, and field crops often are damaged also.
The grubs are serious pests of lawns, other grasses,
and nursery stock.
Gregarious in nature, Japanese beetle adults
are often found feeding in masses on flowers, foliage, or fruit of a
few plants leaving others nearby uninfested.
On most hosts, including okra, leaves are skeletonized
and mature fruit is damaged.
Injury to corn occurs when beetles feed heavily
on the silks and ear tips, sometimes reducing pollination and predisposing
the ear to other insect damage and fungal infections.
In localized spots, larvae injure the developing
root systems of grass crops or weeds.
The grubs overwinter in cells within 13 cm of
the soil surface.
In spring they move upward, almost to ground
level, where they complete feeding and pupate.
The three larval instars complete development
in about 140 days.
Adults emerge as early as mid-May
Throughout summer they attack the fruit and foliage
of many plants including silks of corn.
Soon after emerging females deposit 40 to 60
eggs in small batches 5 to 8 cm deep in the ground.
Under extremely dry conditions, many eggs and
However, during warm, set summers populations
thrive and eggs hatch about 2 weeks after deposition.
Newly emerged larvae feed until cold weather
forces them into hibernation. Only one generation occurs each year.
Milky spore disease and several parasites often
attack beetle grubs and thereby keep Japanese beetle adult populations
below economically damaging levels.
Spray Carbaryl 3g/litre of water when infestation
Leaf Feeding Beetles:
Commonly occurs throughout south-east Asia.
Also attack bitter gourd, bottle gourd, potato and tomato.
Egg mass of leaf feeding beetle
Adults are spherical, pale yellowish brown elytra
mottled with black spots.
A total of 28 spots are found on H. vigintioctopunctata
while E.dodecastigma has 12 spots.
Female lays as may as 120 to 180 eggs, Yellowish,
elongated, cigar-shaped eggs are laid in batches, generally on lower
surface of leaves, with their tips pointing which
are in batches of 30 to 35 in number.
They hatch in 2 to 4 days and spiny, yellowish
grubs start feeding on the epidermis of leaves.
Grub of leaf feeding beetle
Grubs are yellowish with spines all over body.
Pupation is on leaves, pupae are hemispherical.
Life cycle is completed in 25-50 days.
Scraping on leaf surface
Both grubs and adults feed by scraping chlorophyll
from epidermal layers of leaves, leaving the veins and veinlets, and
cause characteristic skeletonized patches on
the leaves and forming ladder-like windows.
In severe cases even calyx of the fruit may also
Later, the affected areas on leaves dry and falloff
and damage appears in the form of holes in the leaves.
Collect and destroy egg masses and skeletonised
leaves with adults and grubs.
If infestation is severe Endosulfan 2 ml/litre
of water, Carbaryl 2g/litre of water or Dichlorvos 2ml/litre of water
may be sprayed.
Hand picking of grubs and collection of beetles
by handnets in the early stages of attack is recommended for smallholdings.
Leafhoppers : Empoasca devastans
The adult is wedge-shaped, about 2mm. Long and
pale green in colour.
The forewings have a black spot on their posterior
The nymphs are wingless, pale green in colour
and are found in large numbers on the lower surface of the leaves.
They have a characteristic way of walking diagonally
in relation to their body.
Nature of damage and host plants
The nymphs and adults pierce the plant tissues
and suck the cell sap by their mouthparts.
Initial damage is noticed curling up, followed
by the yellowing of the margins of leaves, while a continued excessive
infestation may result in etiolating of the leaves
and subsequently stunted growth of plants.
A little-leaf, a virus disease is transmitted
by E.devastans from diseases to healthy eggplants.
The adult female lays about 15 to 300 eggs in
the leaf tissues and the minute nymphs emerge out of the eggs in 4 to
The nymphs moult five times.
The life cycle is completed in 14 to 30 days.
About 11 generation have been observed in a year,
the duration of each varying from 15 to 46 days, but there is considerable
The insect is not known to hibernate and if the
conditions are favorable rapid multiplication takes place.
The adults are generally long-lived and can tide
over during adverse climatic conditions.
Spraying of systemic insecticides like Monocrotophos
or Phasphomidon or Dimethoate @ of 2ml/litre of water is very effective.
Repeat it 2 to 3 times at the interval of 10 days.
Spraying 0.3 percent malathion has given very
satisfactory results against adults and nymphs.
Apply recommended doses of Nitrogenous fertilizers.
Antoba (Eublemma) olivacea
Common foliage pest of brinjal.
Attacks other wild solanaceous plants as well
found throughout India.
Larva of leaf roller
Medium sized brownish white moths
Fore wings with brown tinge having a large triangular
olive-green patch on outer area
Hind wings white with brownish tinge towards
Eggs are laid on leaves.
Full grown caterpillars (20 mm) are stout, purple
brown and ornamented with yellow spots and hair.
Pupation is in folded leaves.
Leaf roller damage
The caterpillars bore in the green shoots of
the brinjal and eat the internal matter, resulting the plant to wither.
The larvae also roll up the leaves and feed on
the green matter while remaining inside the folds and thus lead a concealed
Ultimately the folded leaves wither and dry up.
Main host plant is brinjal, but it attacks many
other wild solanceous plants.
Normally the populations are not high enough
to warrant any chemicals.
If situations require the pest may be controlled
by spraying Endosulfan @2ml/litre of water.
Leaf webber larvae
A minor pest found throughout India.
Moths are straw coloured having black dots and
wavy lines on all the wings.
Eggs are laid in batches on under surface of
Full-grown caterpillars are stout, greenish with
black spots and 24-28 mm long.
Pupation is in soil.
Life cycle is completed in about one month.
Leaf webber damage
On hatching caterpillars scrape and feed on epidermal
Later web the leaves with silken strands and
feed on ventral surface of leaves, skeletonizing completely.
Removal and destruction of webbed leaves can
check the damage.
If severe, spray Endosulfan 2ml/litre, Carbaryl
2g/litre or Chlorpyriphos 2ml/litre of water.
Little Leaf :
Serious disease all over India.
Young plant affected with little leaf
Little leaf symptoms
The characteristic symptom is the small or little
The petioles are so short that the leaves appear
to be sticking to the stem.
Affected plants have narrow, soft, smooth and
Newly formed leaves are much more shorter.
lnternodes of the stem are also shortened.
Axillary buds get enlarged but their petioles
and leaves also remain shortened giving the plant a bushy appearance.
Mostly there is no flowering but if flowers are
formed they remain green. Fruiting is rare.
The phytoplasma is transmitted by the Plant hopper
Hishimonas phycitis .
Pusa Purple Round is tolerant to little leaf.
The severity of the disease can be reduced by
destruction of affected plants and spraying of insecticides like Methyl
demeton 1 ml/litre or Malathion 3 ml/litre of water.
Red Spider Mite :
Tetranychus urticae (Tetranychidae : Acarina)
Adult red spider mite
Highly polyphagous and has a world-wide distribution.
Adults are ovate, reddish brown with four pairs
Eggs are globular and whitish.
Larvae (Ist instar nymphs) are pinkish with three
pairs of legs while nymphs (later instars) are greenish-red, look like
larvae, but have four pairs of legs.
Life cycle is completed in about 20 days.
Silken web by red spider mite
Colonies of mites are found feeding on ventral
surface of leaves under protective cover of fine silken webs, resulting
yellow spots on dorsal surface of leaves
Affected leaves gradually curl, get wrinkled
In heavy infestations even fruits are affected.
Sulphur dust, or sprays of wettable sulphur 2g
/litre, Ethion or Dicofol @ 2ml/litre of water are recommended.
Shoot And Fruit Borer:
Most destructive pest of brinjal, found throughout
Also attacks potato and other solanaceous crops.
Active throughout the year, except in severe
cold weather in North India.
Shoot and fruit borer
Larva of shoot and fruit borer
Moths are medium sized
Fore wings are white having conspicuous black
and brown patches and dots
Hind wings are opalescent with black dots.
Eggs are flattened, elliptical, laid singly on
leaves, shoots, flower buds and occasionally on fruits.
Full grown caterpillars are light pink in colour.
Life cycle is completed in 25-40 days.
Shoot borer damaged plant
Fruit damaged by larva
In young plants caterpillars bore into petioles
and midribs of large leaves and young tender shoots.
Fecal pellets are seen at entrance hole.
When the infestation is on shoots, they bend
down and whither, affected leaves and shoot wither and dry.
The larvae also attack the fruits making their
entry under the calyx when they are young, leaving no visible signs
At later stage of growth, caterpillars bore into
flower buds and fruits, sometimes from under the calyx, when no visible
symptoms are apparent.
Damaged flower buds are shed and fruits show
The large holes seen on fruits are usually the
exit holes of the caterpillars.
The content of vitamin C in the fruits of the
brinjal is found to be reduced.
Removal and destruction of withered and dried
shoots help in arresting the spread of the pest.
Endosulfan, Carbaryl, Fenvalerate, Cypermethrin
or Deltamethrin are recommended.
Synthetic pyrethroids in hot weather are less
Continuous cropping of the brinjal leads to more
infestation and hence should not be indulged in.
Brinjal with long, narrow fruits are less susceptible
to attack and, therefore, this variety should be preferred than other
Stem Borer :
Widely distributed all over Indian sub- continent.
Also attacks chilli, tomato and at times even
Larvae in cut open stem
Moths are medium sized
Fore wings pale or greyish brown with distinct
dentate vertical black lines beyond middle of the wing
Hind wings are whitish.
Eggs are laid singly or in clusters on young
leaves, petioles or tender shoots.
Full grown caterpillars are 16-18 mm long and
Pupation is in stem.
Life cycle is completed in 30-60 days.
Stem borer damaged plant
It is a widespread pest of the cultivated brinjal
in the plains throughout India, the most destructive pest of this crop.
The infested plant withers up and presents a
stunted growth due to the feeding activities of the caterpillar on the
tissues of the stem.
Generally attack is at later stage of crop growth.
Soon after hatching the caterpillar bores into
stem near the ground level and moves downwards.
Pencil-thick and woody stem is preferred.
Attacked plants wither and wilt, growth is stunted
and fruiting capacity is adversely affected.
Avoid ratooning of brinjal crop, since woody
stem is preferred by the larva.
Spray Endosulphan @2ml/litre of water or Quinolphose
2ml or Carbaryl 3g/litre of water.
Found throughout India.
Polyphagous in nature with its main hosts as
cotton, tobacco, and some winter vegetables
Sporadically severe on brinjal and tomato.
White fly adults
Adults are tiny, moth-like white body including
wings which are covered with a white waxy bloom.
Eggs are pear shaped, light-yellowish with short
stalks inserted into tomato leaves.
Nymphs are oval, scale-like and greenish white.
Honey dew on leaf surface
On hatching nymphs crawl a little, settle down
on a succulent spot on ventral surface of leaf, and keep sucking sap.
Affected parts become yellowish, leaves wrinkle,
curl downwards and are ultimately shed.
Honeydew excreted by nymphs attracts sooty molds
which form black coating on leaves.
If 5-10 whiteflies are noticed per leaf, spray
Triazophos 2.5 ml or Profenophos 2.0 ml/litre of water.
Do not spray synthetic pyrethroids like Deltamethrin,
Cypermethrin and Fenvalerate as it leads to resurgence.
For the control of white fly invariably use knapsack
sprayers with high spray fluid.
As the flies are attracted to yellow colour,
place yellow plates / tins with grease so that the attracted flies get
stuck to the grease.