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Introduction > Origin and Spread > Area and Production > Uses >


Ikisan - History of Brinjal

Introduction

  • The brinjal , also knows as "Guinea squash," is a member of the nightshade family, along with the tomato, pepper, and potato.
  • The plant is grown for its purple fruits that are usually baked, boiled, or fried.
  • The common large-fruited forms are believed to have originated in India, with a possible secondary center of origin in China for the small-fruited types.
  • Although several different types of eggplants are grown around the world, they are not considered as major crop except in Asia, where the plants are grown on a fairly wide scale in China, India, and Japan.
  • It is one of the most common vegetables grown throughout the Country.
  • This can be grown successfully under the climatic conditions prevailing in South India and the Deccan Plateau.
  • It comes up well even in hilly regions where the temperature does not come down below 5o C.
  • It is rich in Vitamin A and B.

 
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Ikisan - Origin and spread of Brinjal

Origin and Spread

  • The brinjal is believed to have been domesticated in north-eastern India where wild forms still grow.
  • The seeds were carried to China more than 1500 years ago where small fruited types were later developed.
  • It was introduced from India by early traders from Arabia and Persia to the countries of the eastern and southern shores of the Mediterranean early in the Middle ages.
  • Portuguese colonies took it to Brazil. It is now widely cultivated for its fruits in the tropical, subtropical and warm temperate zones, especially in southern Europe and the southern United States.
  • In 1806, it was introduced to American gardens primarily as an ornamental curiosity and was probably introduced into Europe during the Moorish invasion of Spain.
  • It gained popularity in 1890s, as minor vegetable.
  • The ancestral form was very likely a spiny plant with small, bitter fruit, but selection for improved palatability and for relative spinelessness resulted in gradual emergence of an acceptable type.
  • Brinjal has been cultivated for many centuries in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, China, Arabia and Philippines.
  • There are several names by which the crop is known in India, but brinjal is the most familiar. Brinjal is also called 'eggplant' or 'aubergine'.
  • The name eggplant is believed to derive from Gerard's description of early forms with small, white fruit resembling eggs.
  • In early years, eggplant was also termed 'Male insana' and the 'Italian Melazana', both of which translate to "made apple".

 
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Ikisan - Area, Production and Productivity of Brinjal

Area, Production and Productivity

  • Brinjal is produced comparatively by few countries, located in the warm areas of the far east and is grown extensively in India, China, France, Italy, Spain, USA, Korea, Japan.
  • The area and production of brinjal in major horticulturally advanced countries are presented in Table.
  • China is the largest producer of brinjal and contributes about 68.7 per cent of the world's brinjal production while India occupies second position in production with a share of 23.3 per cent.
  • However, the productivity of brinjal is quite low (16 MT) in India compared to that of other advanced countries, where the productivity ranges from 17.8 - 32.9MT/ha.
  • In India, brinjal occupies fourth position in area and sixth position in production among the vegetable crops (Table) and contributed 8 % of the total production.
  • The area under brinjal in India during 2002-03 has been reported as 5.07 lakh hectare with a production of 8.0 million tonnes.
  • The major brinjal producing states in India and their production figures are presented in Table.
  • Andhra Pradesh stands first with 24.8 per cent of total area and 31.8 per cent of total production to its credit.
  • The other states namely, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal comprise about 61.5 per cent of the total area under brinjal.
  • Tamil Nadu has 8.84 thousand hectares and 1.74 lakh MT brinjal production to its credit.
  • In Tamil Nadu, Vellore district occupies the highest area (1465 ha.) under brinjal followed by Tiruvannamalai, Coimbatore & salem districts.
  • The productivity of brinjal is high in Vellore, Coimbatore, Erode , Salem and Chengalpet districts as compared to the other brinjal growing districts.

Area, Production and Productivity in Different Countries during 2005

Country

Area in Ha.

Production in Mt

Productivity in Kg/Ha

  China

951,615 17,030,300 17,896

  Egypt

43,000 1,000,000 23,255

  India

510,000 8,200,000 16,078

  Indonesia

43,012 252,216 5,863

  Italy

12,619 373,635 29,608

  Japan

12,000 395,000 32,916

  Philippines

21,000 182,000 8666

  Sudan

12,000 230,000 19,166

  Thailand

12,000 68,000 5,666

  Turkey

35,000 880,000 25,142

World

1,765,076 30,523,867 17,293

Source: Faostat Citation

Area, Production and Productivity of Major Vegetable in India (2002-03)

Vegetables

Area (1000 ha)

Production (1000 MT)

Productivity (MT)

Potato
1337
23161
17.3
Onion
424
4209

9.9

Tomato
478
7616
15.9
Brinjal

507

8001

15.8
Cauliflower
254

4444

17.5

Cabbage
234
5392
23
Green peas

305

2061

6.8

Okra

329

3244

9.9

Source: Statistical Abstract, India, 2003

State wise Area, Production and Productivity in India (1998-99)

State

Area (1000 ha)

Production (1000 MT)

Productivity (MT)

Andhra Pradesh

79.34

1606.63

20.25

Maharashtra

65.26

1249.00

19.14

Karnataka

49.20

780.80

15.87

Orissa

33.00

405.90

12.30

Madhya Pradesh

30.14

317.37

10.53

West Bengal

18.16

203.39

11.20

Uttar Pradesh

9.27

95.94

10.35

Tamil Nadu

8.84

174.67

19.76

Assam

3.42

28.10

8.25

Rajasthan

3.20

20.47

6.36

Bihar

3.14

21.98

7.00

Gujarat

3.57

37.48

10.50

Punjab

2.80

23.66

8.45

Haryana

2.45

23.59

9.63

Manipur

2.12

12.72

6.00

Kerala

2.10

22.68

10.80

Mizorum

1.33

6.31

4.75

Tripura

1.26

8.31

6.60

Arunachal Pradesh

1.19

5.23

4.40

Pondicherry

0.45

4.86

10.80

Total

320.24

5049.00

15.76

District wise Area, Production and Productivity in Andhra Pradesh (2003-04)

District

Area in Hectares

Production in tonnes

Yield in Kg/ha

1

2 3 4

Srikakulam

909 27255 29984

Vizianagaram

1195 19804 16572

Visakhapatnam

1615 20084 12436

East Godavari

2783 66647 23948

West Godavari

1224 15643 12780

Krishna

905 17203 19009

Guntur

1231 17657 14344

Prakasham

370 7033 19009

Nellore

386 7337 19009

Chittoor

1664 18271 10980

Cuddapah

520 7959 15305

Ananthapur

1129 19414 17196

Kurnool

1495 27359 18300

Mahaboobnagar

748 5969 7980

Rangareddy

2043 29558 14468

Medak

667 8657 12979

Nizamabad

513 6658 12979

Adilabad

544 7061 12979

Karimnagar

389 5049 12979

Warangal

531 6892 12979

Khammam

389 5049 12979

Nalgonda

219 2842 12979

State

21469 349401 16275

Source : Season & crop report, AndhraPradesh Govt


 
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Ikisan - Uses of Brinjal

Uses

  • Brinjal is grown commonly in almost all the parts of the country and liked by both poor and rich.
  • It is a main vegetable to the plains and is available more or less throughout the year.
  • Used primarily as cooked vegetable,
  • Brinjal is popular for the preparation of various dishes in different regions of the country.
  • It is supposed to contain certain medicinal properties in ayurvedic medicines.
  • It is rich in Vitamin A and B.

 
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