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Seed Material
Cultivation Practices
Post Harvest
Growth Regulators
Crop Specific
Ikisan - Berseem Cultivation

Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum (L))

Sl.No. Parameters Ideal Conditions
Land conditions preferred
Berseem has roots with bacterial nodules. The soil must be well drained and free from harmful salts. Clay loam soils rich in calcium and phosphorus are the best soil types for this crop. The crop can tolerate acidity and alight alkalinity as well. Medium to heavy soils are best suited. In light soils the yield is drastically reduced.

Land preparation required before sowing

i. Fine seed bed is required as berseem seed is very small. After harvest of Kharif crop, if the soil does not have moisture, the filed should be given light irrigation and then 3 to 4 ploughings followed by plankings each time helps in breaking the clods and levelling the surface. The field may be laid in to smaller beds of convenient size according to topography and source of irrigation water.

ii. The land can be prepared as wet with puddler as in case of paddy and levelled an made in to smaller convenient beds.


Seed rate

25 to 35 kg/ha.


Seed treatment required before sowing

To eliminate Chicory in berseem crop, the seed should be poured in one percent common salt solution and the floating chicory seeds should be taken out and berseem seed is cleaned with fresh water, dried under shade and sown.


Time of nursery raising



Sowing time

October to November


Time of transplanting




Broadcasting the seed and mixing in dry soil or wet the seed overnight and broadcast over wet land prepared and withdraw the water. Broadcast or line sowing at distance of 25-30 cm solid row.





Fertilizer application

N-20 kg/ha, P 2O 5, 80kg kg/ha. Apply as base at the time of final ploughing, to get a better growth. Application of 20kg N/ha after each cut is desirable.


Weed control

Mechanical weeding when sown in lines or hand weeding recommended. For control of Chicorv weed, treatment with 1% common salt solution is preferred.



Borseem bears nodule bacteria hence it is susceptible to water logging.


Disease control measures

Collar rot (Fusarium sp) is soil borne disease and produces stem rot just above the ground. Seed treatment with carbendazim or zineb @ 2.5g/kg seed gives good control.


Insect pest control measures

Army worm spodoptera mauritia, Mythimna unipuncta are voracious feeders on the foliage. They appear after havy rains and can be controlled by spraying endosulfan @2ml/L of water.


Harvesting time for fodder production

First cut at 45-50 days followed by 3-4 cuts at an interval of 20-25 days.

Fodder yield

45-50 t/ha in 3-4 cuts.

Harvesting time for seed production

After taking 1-2 cuttings the plants should be allowed to seed in the month of March.


Seed drying (duration etc)

The harvested seed should be cleaned and dried.



Wardhan, Mescavi, BL 2, BL 10 and BL 22.


Any other information

Berseem is suited to Rabi season. Best suited to North and South Telangana Region of Andhra Pradesh. If the temperature is above 35 0C the growth becomes stunted.

Forage Crops
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