This pest is prevalent in the mango flowering season, when it multiplies
in large numbers and proves devastating to the crop.
Due to recurrent annual damage by the hoppers, some orchards fail
altogether to blossom.
Three distinct species of the mango hopper, Idiocerus clypealis
Leth., I.niveosparsus Leth., and I.atkinsoni Leth.,
are found in India.
I.atkinsoni is commonly met with in Bengal, Bihar, Gujarat,
Maharashtra, the Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Orissa.
I.clypealis occurs in Bengal, Bihar, Madras, Uttar Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Mysore and the Punjab. I.niveosparsus is found in
Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, Gujarat, Madras and Maharashtra.
Egg laying in the rachis of inflorescence Shiny
leaves due to honey-dew deposition
The pest attacks inflorescences and buds. It is exclusively
restricted to mango; no other hosts are known.
The over-wintering hoppers become active with the advent of
flowering and cluster on the floral buds where they feed on the
sap of the growing inflorescence.
Adult hoppers on leaves
Sooty molds on leaves and inflorescence
Adult hoppers on tree trunk
The nymphs, on emergence, become active and are as injurious
to the flowers as the adults.
They suck the sap from the flowers, which shrivel and then drop.
Old neglected mango trees fall easily a prey to this pest and
the trees inside an orchard are more infested than those on the
In Uttar Pradesh, there appear to be two generations, one being more
marked than the other, which occurs in July.
From the first week of June, the pest population declines gradually
but with the onset of monsoon it gets considerably reduced.
From July till the ensuing January, the insect remains inactive and
is found hiding in small numbers among the leaves and on the bark of
In Uttar Pradesh, because of the secretion of honey-dew, this pest
is commonly known as lassi.
The pest can be satisfactorily controlled by Spraying with 0.05% malathion
(50% malathion + 50% chlordane), 0.02% parathion, diazinon (0.02%),
carbaryl (0.15%), Phosphomidon (0.05%) or nuvacron (0.04%) once at the
time of panicle emergence and then again at the fruit set stage.
Spraying of methyl parathion (0.025%), monocrotophos (0.025%), fenitrothion
(0.25%) or carbaryl (0.1%) with higher volume sprayer @ 10 l/tree significantly
reduced the hopper population.
Sulphur dusting is effective in controlling mango hoppers in Konkan,
while this treatment has not proved successful in Gujarat.
The mixture toxaphene with sulphur (1:1) have been reported to be
effective against pest.
The mango mealy bug (Drosicha mangiferae Green) is responsible
for devastating the crop during its serious incidence.
It is not as widespread as the mango hopper.
It is easy to recognize by its large flattish and plump females, which
are covered with a white meal.
Mealy bugs on fruit
The female lays eggs during May under soil clods, around the
tree trunk upto a depth of 5-15cm.
The nymphs emerge in December-January and start climbing up
the tree where they congregate together and suck juice from young
shoots, panicles and flower pedicels.
The affected parts dry up and yield is reduced substantially.
The females can be identified by their flat shape, covered
with white mealy powder-once the pest manages to reach the top
of the plant, its control becomes rather difficult.
bugs on fruit set
The common method of control is to prevent the ascent of the nymphs
up the trees by fastening a grease band on the trunks a few feet above
The band may be made by applying a mixture of rosin and castor oil
(4:5) or ostico on a strip of paper, 7.5 cm. to 10 cm. in width.
The lower end of the paper should be flushed with the tree by applying
The rosin-castor-oil band loses its stickiness in eight to ten days,
when it should be renewed by applying fresh material.
Partial check can be effected by cleaning the debris and soil at
the base of the trees and also through the cultivation of the soil under
the trees after the monsoon, Chemical control by using a mixture of
0.15 per cent nicotine sulphate, 1.25 per cent sesame oil, 0.25 per
cent soft soap, 0.3 per cent washing soda in water and 0.3 per cent
ethyl alcohol is effective.
Spraying with 0.06 per cent diazinon has also proved effective.
In case the nymphs climbed up the tree, there should be controlled
at the earliest by spraying carbaryl (0.2%) or nuvacron (0.04%).
In case of potted plants in nursery, fumigation of the plants with
HCN gas has been done successfully.
No parasite or predator has been found so far to control the mealy
bugs on an extensive scale.
Fruit trees are damaged to a considerable extent by the bark-eating
caterpillars, which attack trees of all ages, particularly the older
ones, lowering their vitality.
When severely infested, the entire branch or tree may die.
Three species of this pest have been recorded in India, viz., Inderbela
quadrinotata Wlk., I.tetraonis M.o. and I.dea Swinhoe.
I.quadrinotata is found in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Madhya
Pradesh. a number of host plants are known, viz., mango, guava, Zizphus,
litchi, orange, pomegranate, kachnar, loquat, mulberry, and Eugenia.
The attack by this pest is characterized by the presence of long-winding,
thick, blackish or brownish ribbon-like masses composed of small chips
of wood and excreta, both of which intermix with the help of adhesive
material secreted by the caterpillar, which bores into the bark of the
trees and remains in the tunnels dug into the sap-conducting tissues.
By continuously devouring the tissues, it tunnels through the stem
This injury weakens the stem, resulting in drying of the branches
and finally of the tree itself.
The caterpillars can be killed by inserting an iron spike into the
This insect has also been successfully controlled by injecting ethylene
glycol and kerosene oil in the ratio of 1:3 into the tunnel by means
of a syringe and then sealing the opening of the tunnel with mud.
The caterpillars are killed inside the tunnel by poison vapurs liberated
by the mixture of ethylene glycol and kerosene.
Another method of control is dipping a small piece of cotton in any
of the fumigants, like carbon bisulphide, chlorosal or even petrol,
and introducing it into the tunnel and sealing the opening with clay
A mixture of equal parts of creosote and chloroform or petrol or cheap
kerosene oil may be injected into shelter tunnels to kill the active
As a preventive measure, spraying of the attacked trunk and branches
with 0.25 per cent DDT emulsion or 0.1 per cent parathion emulsion should
These species occur in almost all the states of India.
The principle food of the termites is fibrous material (cellulose).
The worker termites feed on roots, shoots and trunks of the mango
tree, which sometimes dries up if the roots are severely damaged.
The earthen galleries form a safe passage on the trunk and branches
of the trees for the termites, which go on destroying the bark and tissues
within these galleries.
For the control of termites, dusting with 5 per cent BHC or 5 per
cent aldrin or 6 per cent heptachlor dust at 22 to 27 kg. per hectare
in soil around the infested plants, and raking in into the soil has
The trunk and branches affected by termites may be dusted with 5 per
cent BHC dust after scraping the termite galleries.
Orchards should be kept clean and free of all refuse vegetation.
All the dead and decaying wood, whether on the trees or in the ground,
should be regularly removed.
Liberal application of finely ground mahua cake, followed
by irrigation, helps to drive away the termites.
In areas liable to termite infestation, pits prepared for planting
should first be treated with crude-oil emulsion, about one-fourth kilogramme
of which should be thoroughly mixed with four average-sized baskets
A very high percentage of ripe mangoes in important mango-growing
areas is rendered unfit for consumption by the maggots of these
They cause dark punctures in the fruits for oviposition from
June to August.
Later, a brownish rotten patch makes its appearance on the surface
of the attacked mango fruits with the characteristic oozing of
fluid after the maggots have eaten the pulp.
The fruit eventually drops when the maggots come out and enter
the soil for pupation.
Collection and disposal of the fallen infested fruits should be resorted
to and the infested soil should be removed.
Under-sized fruits left on the tree should be picked and destroyed.
If the trees are few, bagging the fruits with cloth or paper bags
can be tried for protection.
For the destruction of adult flies congregating in the night under
the leaves of fruit trees, application of a suitable spray, viz., dilution
of eight times of diesel-oil emulsion (diesel oil 4.5 litres, soft soap
0.45 kg. and water 4.5 litres) is recommended.
Heavy application of dust and sprays of pyrethrum or BHC on the tree
reduces the number of adult flies.
The use of chemotropic oils and chemicals, such as clensel, attracts
the adults of D.dorsalis.
Citronella oil, liquid ammonium carbonate, ammonium sulphate, molasses
and the mixtures including some fruit juices are utilized in other countries
as attractants with partial success.
D.dorsalis is attracted by citronella, liquid ammonia, clense,
methyl-eugenol, bay-oil, vanilla, and pollard mixture.
A poison-bait spray containing malathion and hydrolysed or partially
hydrolysed protein for the control of oriental fruit fly for one to
three weeks has also been recommended (water 13.5 litres to 180 litres,
yeast protein 0.45 kg., 25 per cent malathion W.P. 0.9 kg.).
The bait should be freshly prepared before spray.
Effective parasites for the control of fruit flies are yet to be discovered
The spread of these destructive pests can be prevented only by applying
strict quarantine measures.
Fourteen types of galls, eleven on the leaf, one in the leaf axil,
one on the inflorescence and one on the stem have been found to occur.
Twelve of these are caused by cecid flies, out of which seven species
have been identified as Procontarinia mattenana Kieff. &
Cecec., Amradiplosis echinogalliperda Mani, Dasyneura mangiferae
Felt., Rhadbophaga mangiferae Mani, Amraemyia amraemyia
Mani, A.viridigallicola Mani, and A.brunneigallicola
P.matteiana occurs almost all over India.
All the three species of genus Amraemyia occur in Uttar Pradesh.
Amradiplosis echinogalliperda has been collected from Bengal
and Uttar Pradesh.
Three flies are reported to attack mango trees only.
Amraemyia spp. cause slaty-green, smooth and rough-surfaced,
globular galls on leaves.
The other four species cause minute pustular galls or round, echinate
galls on the leaves and inflorescence.
The same leaf may have different types of galls.
The number of galls varies greately from a few to 700 and in cases
of heavy attack the leaves are entirely covered with bead-like structures.
The eggs are laid on the underside of the leaves during March, July
The maggots, on hatching, bore into the leaf tissue giving rise to
galls on the upper surface of the leaves.
The leaves are rendered useless by continuos draining of the sap by
larvae feeding inside the gall.
No definite control measures against mango leaf-gall-makers have been
evolved as yet.
Some of their natural enemies have been recorded.
The larvae of A.viridigallicola are parasitized by Torymus
sp. and Prodecatoma sp. and those of A.brunneigallicola and
A.amraemyia by Ametallon sp. Spray dimethoate, phosphomidon
While over a hundred species of fruit sucking moths have been reported
from various parts of the world. 11 have been observed in this country
and, of these, 4 are common.
They mostly damage the ripe or ripening fruits.
Othreis materna L. lays eggs singly on the under surface of
They hatch out in two or three days.
The larval period lasts from 7 to 15 days.
The duration of pupal period is from 7 to 13 days.
Thus the duration of life cycle from egg to moth emergence lasts from
22 to 27 days during July and September.
The longevity of the adult lasts from 24 to 40 days but sometimes
as long as 10 weeks.
The caterpillars feed on certain wild creepers.
There may be two or three overlapping generations in a season.
The moths become active during the night and fly long distances in
search of ripe or ripening fruits, probably attracted by their odour.
The abdomen and hind-wings have an orange-yellow ground colour and
the latter are marked black.
The young caterpillars are at first green but become velvety and acquire
beautiful patterns of colour (black and purple predominant) later on.
These by themselves are not injurious.
Moths of Calpe emarginata Fabr.
Appear just after rains in June and July and lay eggs on the under
surface of leaves.
The incubation, pre-pupal and pupal periods are 2, 1 to 2, and 10
to 17 days, respectively.
There are several overlapping generations from June-July to October.
Achoea janata L.appears in nature during June-July, and lays
eggs on early-sown castor crop.
Incubation, larval and pupal periods are 4 to 6, 9 to 16 and 8 to
12 days, respectively, from May to October and there are four to five
It hibernates in winter (November to February) and aestivates from
March to May in pupal stage.
The longevity of moth, when fed, is 8 to 12 days.
The larval-food plants growing in and around the orchards should be
removed and destroyed regularly.
Light traps should be put up in the orchards to trap the moths for
The shoots, foliage and inflorescence of the mango trees are damage
by the caterpillars of several speices of moths and of these only few
prove to be pests of any real economic importance.
Caterpillars of chlumetia transversa Wlk. Bore the young roots
of mango, which become hollow and later dry up.
The castor-slug caterpillar, Parasa lipida G., a green striped
and spotted caterpillar, Bombotelia jocosatrix G., the tussock
hairy caterpillar, Euproctis scintillaus W., and the larva of
the butterfly Euthalia garuda M. are sometimes found feeding
on the foliage of mango trees.
The slender pale-green shoot-webbing caterpillar of Orthaga exyinacea
M. occasionally becomes serious and on the trees infested with this
pest numerous webbed and dry top shoots become conspicuous.
The caterpillars of Acrocercops syngramma M. mine the leaves
and produce blister marks on the tender foliage.
These caterpillars have never been a serious problem to orchardists.
Their control measures have also not been worked out.