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  Pest Management

Dendrophthoe > Cassytha > Mango Hopper > Mealybug > Bark Cracking > Bark Eating Caterpillar > Decline > Termites > Fruit Flies > Shoot Borer > Scales > Shoot Gall Maker > Gall Midge > Leaf Gall Maker > Nut Weevil > Black Fly > Mites > Thrips > Tea Mosquito Bug > Fruit Borer > Red Tree Ant > Leaf MIner > Leaf Webber > Minor Pests > Woody Gall >


Ikisan - Dendrophthoe parasite in Mango

Dendrophthoe

Symptoms

Dendrophthoe

on mango tree

Haustoria of Dendrophthoe on mango branch

  • Dendrophthoe is a partial stem parasite.
  • It has leaves, flowers and fruits, and its leaves are more or less similar to that of mango with lesser length.
  • Birds eat the fruits of the parasite and the seeds are excreted through droppings which fall on limbs and branches of the tree.
  • The seed germinates under favourable conditions and gives out clusters of shoots.
  • The seeds while sprouting produce bulged haustoria which penetrate into the bark and absorb water and minerals from the host and grow as plant.
  • The haustoria of the parasite serve as roots.
  • Due to absorption of nutrients by the parasite from the host the tree gradually weakens.
  • The infested tree yields less and the fruit quality is reduced.
  • In severe case of infestation the entire tree dies.

Control

  • Cut affected twigs and branches about one inch below the lower most haustorium and destroy them.
  • Apply Bordeaux paste to cut ends of the tree.

 
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Ikisan - Cassytha in Mango

Cassytha

Symptoms

Mango branches with strands of Cassytha

  • It is a partial stem parasite commonly known as dodder.
  • The parasite appears as green thin threads/strands because of the modified leaves.
  • It bears fruits which are likened by certain bired.
  • The birds eat the fruits and seeds get disseminated through droppings.
  • The fruit contains gelatinous substance which facilitates adherence of the seed to the beak of the bird thereby spreading the parasite.
  • The seeds that fall on limbs, branches and twigs germinate under favourable conditions and produce pin-head sized root-like haustoria.
  • Parasite absorbs water and nutrients from the host plant through these haustoria and weakens the host.
  • Yield, size and quality of the fruits are reduced.
  • In severe cases of infestation, the tree may die.

Control

  • The strands with haustoria must be cut completely and destroyed.
  • Bordeaux paste should be applied to cut ends of the host.
  • The parasite should not be allowed to grow on trees in the fence as it forms the source of pernnation.

 
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Ikisan - Mangohoppers

Mango Hopper

  • This pest is prevalent in the mango flowering season, when it multiplies in large numbers and proves devastating to the crop.
  • Due to recurrent annual damage by the hoppers, some orchards fail altogether to blossom.
  • Three distinct species of the mango hopper, Idiocerus clypealis Leth., I.niveosparsus Leth., and I.atkinsoni Leth., are found in India.
  • I.atkinsoni is commonly met with in Bengal, Bihar, Gujarat, Maharashtra, the Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Orissa.
  • I.clypealis occurs in Bengal, Bihar, Madras, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Mysore and the Punjab. I.niveosparsus is found in Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, Gujarat, Madras and Maharashtra.

Symptoms

Egg laying in the rachis of inflorescence Shiny leaves due to honey-dew deposition

  • The pest attacks inflorescences and buds. It is exclusively restricted to mango; no other hosts are known.
  • The over-wintering hoppers become active with the advent of flowering and cluster on the floral buds where they feed on the sap of the growing inflorescence.

Adult hoppers on leaves

Sooty molds on leaves and inflorescence

Adult hoppers on tree trunk

  • The nymphs, on emergence, become active and are as injurious to the flowers as the adults.
  • They suck the sap from the flowers, which shrivel and then drop.
  • Old neglected mango trees fall easily a prey to this pest and the trees inside an orchard are more infested than those on the border.
  • In Uttar Pradesh, there appear to be two generations, one being more marked than the other, which occurs in July.
  • From the first week of June, the pest population declines gradually but with the onset of monsoon it gets considerably reduced.
  • From July till the ensuing January, the insect remains inactive and is found hiding in small numbers among the leaves and on the bark of mango trees.
  • In Uttar Pradesh, because of the secretion of honey-dew, this pest is commonly known as lassi.

Control

  • The pest can be satisfactorily controlled by Spraying with 0.05% malathion (50% malathion + 50% chlordane), 0.02% parathion, diazinon (0.02%), carbaryl (0.15%), Phosphomidon (0.05%) or nuvacron (0.04%) once at the time of panicle emergence and then again at the fruit set stage.
  • Spraying of methyl parathion (0.025%), monocrotophos (0.025%), fenitrothion (0.25%) or carbaryl (0.1%) with higher volume sprayer @ 10 l/tree significantly reduced the hopper population.
  • Sulphur dusting is effective in controlling mango hoppers in Konkan, while this treatment has not proved successful in Gujarat.
  • The mixture toxaphene with sulphur (1:1) have been reported to be effective against pest.

 
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Ikisan - Mealybug in Mango

Mango Mealy Bug

  • The mango mealy bug (Drosicha mangiferae Green) is responsible for devastating the crop during its serious incidence.
  • It is not as widespread as the mango hopper.
  • It is easy to recognize by its large flattish and plump females, which are covered with a white meal.

Symptoms


Mealy bugs on fruit

  • The female lays eggs during May under soil clods, around the tree trunk upto a depth of 5-15cm.
  • The nymphs emerge in December-January and start climbing up the tree where they congregate together and suck juice from young shoots, panicles and flower pedicels.
  • The affected parts dry up and yield is reduced substantially.
  • The females can be identified by their flat shape, covered with white mealy powder-once the pest manages to reach the top of the plant, its control becomes rather difficult.

Mealy bugs on fruit set

Control

  • The common method of control is to prevent the ascent of the nymphs up the trees by fastening a grease band on the trunks a few feet above the ground.
  • The band may be made by applying a mixture of rosin and castor oil (4:5) or ostico on a strip of paper, 7.5 cm. to 10 cm. in width.
  • The lower end of the paper should be flushed with the tree by applying mud, etc.
  • The rosin-castor-oil band loses its stickiness in eight to ten days, when it should be renewed by applying fresh material.
  • Partial check can be effected by cleaning the debris and soil at the base of the trees and also through the cultivation of the soil under the trees after the monsoon, Chemical control by using a mixture of 0.15 per cent nicotine sulphate, 1.25 per cent sesame oil, 0.25 per cent soft soap, 0.3 per cent washing soda in water and 0.3 per cent ethyl alcohol is effective.
  • Spraying with 0.06 per cent diazinon has also proved effective.
  • In case the nymphs climbed up the tree, there should be controlled at the earliest by spraying carbaryl (0.2%) or nuvacron (0.04%).
  • In case of potted plants in nursery, fumigation of the plants with HCN gas has been done successfully.
  • No parasite or predator has been found so far to control the mealy bugs on an extensive scale.

 
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Ikisan - BarkCracking in Mango

Bark Cracking

Longitudinal bark cracks on trunk

 

 

Dried tree due to bark cracking

 Symptoms

  • The malady manifests as longitudinal cracks on trunk and limbs.
  • Bark dries in advanced stage.
  • The leaves in the affected tree are spares, pale and lustreless.
  • The tree exhibits wilting symptoms and after some time the entire tree dries up.
  • Most conspicuous symptoms are rotting of roots and adherence of dried leaves to twig.
  • The malady was noticed on Thothapoori (Collector) varity in bearing gardens.

 Control

  • One spray with copper oxychloride 3g/litre or application of 250 g copper sulphate per three basin will contain the malady to a great extent.

 
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Ikisan - Bark Eating Caterpillars of Mango

Bark-Eating Caterpillars

  • Fruit trees are damaged to a considerable extent by the bark-eating caterpillars, which attack trees of all ages, particularly the older ones, lowering their vitality.
  • When severely infested, the entire branch or tree may die.
  • Three species of this pest have been recorded in India, viz., Inderbela quadrinotata Wlk., I.tetraonis M.o. and I.dea Swinhoe.
  • I.quadrinotata is found in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. a number of host plants are known, viz., mango, guava, Zizphus, litchi, orange, pomegranate, kachnar, loquat, mulberry, and Eugenia.

Symptoms

  • The attack by this pest is characterized by the presence of long-winding, thick, blackish or brownish ribbon-like masses composed of small chips of wood and excreta, both of which intermix with the help of adhesive material secreted by the caterpillar, which bores into the bark of the trees and remains in the tunnels dug into the sap-conducting tissues.
  • By continuously devouring the tissues, it tunnels through the stem and branches.
  • This injury weakens the stem, resulting in drying of the branches and finally of the tree itself.

Control

  • The caterpillars can be killed by inserting an iron spike into the tunnels.
  • This insect has also been successfully controlled by injecting ethylene glycol and kerosene oil in the ratio of 1:3 into the tunnel by means of a syringe and then sealing the opening of the tunnel with mud.
  • The caterpillars are killed inside the tunnel by poison vapurs liberated by the mixture of ethylene glycol and kerosene.
  • Another method of control is dipping a small piece of cotton in any of the fumigants, like carbon bisulphide, chlorosal or even petrol, and introducing it into the tunnel and sealing the opening with clay or mud.
  • A mixture of equal parts of creosote and chloroform or petrol or cheap kerosene oil may be injected into shelter tunnels to kill the active boring caterpillars.
  • As a preventive measure, spraying of the attacked trunk and branches with 0.25 per cent DDT emulsion or 0.1 per cent parathion emulsion should be done.

 
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Ikisan - Decline/die back symptoms in Mango

Decline

Die-back due to decline

Symptoms

  • Drying of branches, stray foliage and poor crop are the symptoms of decline.
  • This is commonly seen in bearing orchards without management.
  • The condition is also termed as 'neglectosis'.
  • This is more prevalent in orchards under rainfed areas with hard sub-soil.

Control

  • Digging/ploughing and incorporation of dropped leaves alongwith recommended dose of manures during rainy season coupled with pruning of dried twigs will improve plant health and mitigate the decline.

 
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Ikisan - Termites of Mango

Termites

  • Termites are not the primary agents responsible for any damage to the mango trees, to which they find access generally when trees are in a weakened condition due to some other cause.
  • Several species have been reported in India but out of these eight are common, viz., Odontotermes obsesus Ramb.
  • Microtermes obesi Hilmgr., O.assuthi Hilmgr., O.feae Wasmann., Trinervitermes beimi Wasmann., Coptotermes reimi Wasmann., Heterotermes indicola Wasmann., and Nevbevares gardneri Synder.
  • These species occur in almost all the states of India.
  • The principle food of the termites is fibrous material (cellulose).
  • The worker termites feed on roots, shoots and trunks of the mango tree, which sometimes dries up if the roots are severely damaged.
  • The earthen galleries form a safe passage on the trunk and branches of the trees for the termites, which go on destroying the bark and tissues within these galleries.
  • For the control of termites, dusting with 5 per cent BHC or 5 per cent aldrin or 6 per cent heptachlor dust at 22 to 27 kg. per hectare in soil around the infested plants, and raking in into the soil has proved effective.
  • The trunk and branches affected by termites may be dusted with 5 per cent BHC dust after scraping the termite galleries.
  • Orchards should be kept clean and free of all refuse vegetation.
  • All the dead and decaying wood, whether on the trees or in the ground, should be regularly removed.
  • Liberal application of finely ground mahua cake, followed by irrigation, helps to drive away the termites.
  • In areas liable to termite infestation, pits prepared for planting should first be treated with crude-oil emulsion, about one-fourth kilogramme of which should be thoroughly mixed with four average-sized baskets of soil.

 
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Ikisan - Fruitflies of Mango

Fruit Flies

  • The fruit flies of vegetables are important pests of mangoes and other fruits as well.
  • Five species occur in India. Their distribution and host range are given below.

Host range

Pest

Distribution

Mango, guava, loquat, peach, apple, fig, quince, banana, plum, pomegranate, citrus, apricot, and a variety of vegetables.

Dacus dorsalis Hendel Mango fruit fly, Oriental fruit fly.

Widely distributed

Peach, mango, guava, bael, fig, sapota, tomato, Zizyphus, toria, custard-apple, brinjal, melon

D. zonatus Saunders

Uttar Pradesh, the Punjab, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madras, Mysore

Citrus, Zizyphus, beal, peach, mango

D. correctus Bezzi

Bihar, Madras, the Punjab, Madhya Pradesh

Guava, citrus, banana, Eugenia, mango

D. diversus Coqu.

Madras, Mysore, Maharashtra the Punjab, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Assam

Mango, sapota, pummelo, pumpkin, gourd, tomato

D. hageni de Meijeri

Assam, Sikkim, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, the Punjab, Madras, Mysore

Symptoms

 

Infested fruit

Maggot inside the fruits

Adult flies

 

  • A very high percentage of ripe mangoes in important mango-growing areas is rendered unfit for consumption by the maggots of these fruit flies.
  • They cause dark punctures in the fruits for oviposition from June to August.
  • Later, a brownish rotten patch makes its appearance on the surface of the attacked mango fruits with the characteristic oozing of fluid after the maggots have eaten the pulp.
  • The fruit eventually drops when the maggots come out and enter the soil for pupation.

Control

  • Collection and disposal of the fallen infested fruits should be resorted to and the infested soil should be removed.
  • Under-sized fruits left on the tree should be picked and destroyed.
  • If the trees are few, bagging the fruits with cloth or paper bags can be tried for protection.
  • For the destruction of adult flies congregating in the night under the leaves of fruit trees, application of a suitable spray, viz., dilution of eight times of diesel-oil emulsion (diesel oil 4.5 litres, soft soap 0.45 kg. and water 4.5 litres) is recommended.
  • Heavy application of dust and sprays of pyrethrum or BHC on the tree reduces the number of adult flies.
  • The use of chemotropic oils and chemicals, such as clensel, attracts the adults of D.dorsalis.
  • Citronella oil, liquid ammonium carbonate, ammonium sulphate, molasses and the mixtures including some fruit juices are utilized in other countries as attractants with partial success.
  • D.dorsalis is attracted by citronella, liquid ammonia, clense, methyl-eugenol, bay-oil, vanilla, and pollard mixture.
  • A poison-bait spray containing malathion and hydrolysed or partially hydrolysed protein for the control of oriental fruit fly for one to three weeks has also been recommended (water 13.5 litres to 180 litres, yeast protein 0.45 kg., 25 per cent malathion W.P. 0.9 kg.).
  • The bait should be freshly prepared before spray.
  • Effective parasites for the control of fruit flies are yet to be discovered and investigated.
  • The spread of these destructive pests can be prevented only by applying strict quarantine measures.

 
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Ikisan - Shoot Borer in Mango

Mango Shoot-Borer

Scientific Name :

Chlumetia transversa

Family :

Noctuidae

Order :

Lepidoptera
  • Adult moths are stout with green forewings.
  • Young caterpillars are yellowish orange with dark brown prothoracic shield.
  • Full grown caterpillars (20-24mm) are dark pink with dirty spots.

Symptoms

C. transversa damage

P. umbratelis damage

  • Freshly hatched caterpillars bore into mid ribs of tender leaves, come out and bore into tender shoots near the growing point tunnelling downwards, throwing excreta through entrance hole.
  • Leaves of affected shoots whither and droop down.
  • Similar damage is caused by Phycita umbratelis to rachis of inflorescence.

Control

  • Clip off and destroy affected shoots in initial stage of attack.
  • In case of severe attack spray carbaryl.
  • Two sprays at three weeks interval commencing from initiation of new flush of leaves may be required.

 
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Ikisan - Scales in Mango

Mango Scale Insects

  • Several species of scale insects attack the mango in India.
  • Of these five are most serious: Aspidiotus destructor Sign. Pulvinaria polygonata Cock., Parlatoria pergandii Comst., P.cinerea Hadden. and Lepidosaphes gloverii Pack.
  • A.destructor occurs in the mango-growing tracts of Uttar Pradesh and the Punjab; Parlatoria cinerea and Pulvinaria polygonata in Uttar Pradesh, and Parlatoria mangiferae in Orissa.
  • A.dectyospermi Morgan, Diaspis mangiferae Green, and Lecanium bicruciatum Green occur in S. India. L.gloverii occurs in Uttar Pradesh only.

Symptoms

Scales on leaf

  • These scale insects are generally found on mango trees but the other host plants are citrus, palms, banana, sugarcane, etc.
  • They infest the tender parts of the plants and trees, leading a sedentary life and sucking the sap.
  • The damage starts with the advent of summer.
  • The trees lose vitality, cease growing and eventually die.
  • Very little is known about their life and seasonal history.

Control

  • Pruning of infested branches and burning them can be resorted to for the control of small scale infestation.
  • Dimethoate or phosphomidon are effective.

 
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Ikisan - Shoot Gall Maker in Mango

Mango Shoot-Gall-Maker

  • Mango shoot-gall-maker, Apsylla cistellata Buckton, attacks the growing buds of the shoots with the result that green cone-shaped galls in the leaf axil are formed.
  • They prevent the development of leaf flushes or inflorescences.
  • These shoots gradually die resulting in a heavy loss of yield.
  • This pest occurs throughout northern India. No other host plant has so far been recorded.

Symptoms

  • The role of A.cistellata in causing the malformation in the shape of conical galls on the twigs of mango trees is now well known to be due to some sort of secretion by nymphs.
  • In cases of severe attack, particularly on grafted varieties, the affected trees may die or remain barren.

Control

  • No suitable control method has been evolved so far.
  • Parathion (0.04%) sprays during Feb many viz., just before egg laying period have resulted in the reduction of the pest.
  • Satisfactory control can also be obtained by spraying metasystox (0.1%) thrice during September viz., during hatching of nymphs.
  • Application of the 3 per cent tar oil-wash spray has also proved to be of use.
  • Remedy lies in removal of galls using saw and applying bordeaus paste to cut surface.

 
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Ikisan - GallMidge of Mango

Gall Midge

Scientific Name :

C. Procontarinia matteriana

Family :

Cecidomyiidae

Order :

Diptera
  • Several species of gall midges are reported damaging mango.

C. transversa damage

P. umbratelis damage

Symptoms

  • Eggs are laid on the under surface of leaves.
  • On hatchin maggots bore inside leaf tissue, and feed within, resulting in formation of small raised wart-like galls on leaves.
  • Affected leaves get deformed and drop prematurely.
  • Anothe gall midge species makes larger galls.

Control

  • If infestation is severe, especially in young orchards, spray dimethoate, phosphamidon or monocrotophos.

 
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Ikisan - LeafGallMakers in Mango

Mango Leaf-Gall-Makers

  • Fourteen types of galls, eleven on the leaf, one in the leaf axil, one on the inflorescence and one on the stem have been found to occur.
  • Twelve of these are caused by cecid flies, out of which seven species have been identified as Procontarinia mattenana Kieff. & Cecec., Amradiplosis echinogalliperda Mani, Dasyneura mangiferae Felt., Rhadbophaga mangiferae Mani, Amraemyia amraemyia Mani, A.viridigallicola Mani, and A.brunneigallicola Rao.
  • P.matteiana occurs almost all over India.
  • All the three species of genus Amraemyia occur in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Amradiplosis echinogalliperda has been collected from Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Three flies are reported to attack mango trees only.

Symptoms

  • Amraemyia spp. cause slaty-green, smooth and rough-surfaced, globular galls on leaves.
  • The other four species cause minute pustular galls or round, echinate galls on the leaves and inflorescence.
  • The same leaf may have different types of galls.
  • The number of galls varies greately from a few to 700 and in cases of heavy attack the leaves are entirely covered with bead-like structures.
  • The eggs are laid on the underside of the leaves during March, July and October.
  • The maggots, on hatching, bore into the leaf tissue giving rise to galls on the upper surface of the leaves.
  • The leaves are rendered useless by continuos draining of the sap by larvae feeding inside the gall.

Control

  • No definite control measures against mango leaf-gall-makers have been evolved as yet.
  • Some of their natural enemies have been recorded.
  • The larvae of A.viridigallicola are parasitized by Torymus sp. and Prodecatoma sp. and those of A.brunneigallicola and A.amraemyia by Ametallon sp. Spray dimethoate, phosphomidon or monocrotophos.

 
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Ikisan - Mango NutWeevil

Mango Nut Weevil

  • Sternochetus (Cryptorrynchus) mangiferae F. and C.gravis F. attack certain varieties and are not serious pests. They have a very wide distribution all over the tropics.

Symptoms

Damaged cotyledons (Inset: Adult weevil)

  • The ripe mango fruits are destroyed by the tunnels made by the weevil for emerging out.
  • Grubs of the cryptorrychus mangiferae (mor commonly occuring) damage both the pulp and the cotyledons of the stone whereas those of C.gravis develop in the pulp and eat only the fibre of the stone.
  • The eggs are laid in partly developed fruits.
  • The grubs travel through the pulp and enter the seeds where these pupates and the adults come out piercing through the stone and the pulp.
  • C.gravis occurs in eastern Bengal and Assam and C.mangiferae in South India and Orissa.
  • Both species breed in the stone.
  • They have not so far been reported to attack any other fruit.

Critical Crop Stages

Critical Stages

Significance

Sept-Oct

Diapausing adults on the tree trunk

Six weeks after fruit set

Newly emerged larvae seen on the surface of young fruits-Easy to control

Control

  • Proper disposal of the stones and fallen mangoes should be done.
  • General cleanliness and destruction of the weevils on the bark during August should be undertaken.
  • The infested bark should be washed with kerosene emulsion.
  • Drenching spray of either Carbaryl @0.2% (4 g/l of water) or Quinalphos @0.5% (2 ml/l of water) in Sept-Oct on the tree trunk upto a height of 4m.
  • Deltamethrin spray @0.002% (1 ml/l of water) after six weeks of fruit set.

 
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Ikisan - Blackfly in Mango

Black Fly

  • Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, which is found abundantly on various Citrus species, is a minor pest of mango in India.
  • The nymphs and adults suck the sap of leaves and render the trees weak.
  • Its life history on the mango tree has not been worked out, but on Citrus it has been reported that there are four to five generations in a year and its life history varies from 54 to 124 days.
  • No effective measures have been worked out for its control so far.

 
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Ikisan - Mites of Mango

Mites

  • Among non-insect pests, mites are of importance.
  • They cause damage not only to growing trees but also at seedling stage.
  • Three species, Paratetranychus mangiferus Rahman & Sapra, P.yothersi McG. And Eriophyes sp., are involved.

Symptoms

  • Mites, as a mango pest, have been observed in all the mango-growing tracts of India.
  • Eugenia, grapevine, and avocado are some of its alternate hosts.
  • P.mangiferus infests only the upper surface of the mango leaves.
  • The mites spin a profuse webbing and cause mottling of the leaves owing to the disappearance of colour at the spots punctured in feeding.

Control

  • Several sepcies of predatory mites, coccinellids and thrips prey upon these mites.
  • For a limited number of trees, removal and destruction of infested parts of plants should be resorted to.
  • Spraying the affected plants with lime-sulphur wash (1:2:10) or 0.05 per cent parathion or diazinon has proved effective.
  • Sulphur, in whatever form it is used, is effective in controlling P.yothersi.

 
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Ikisan - Mango thrips

Thrips

Caliothrips indicus, Rhipiphorothrips cruentatus, Scirtothrips dorsalis,

Family :

Thripidae

Order :

Thysanoptera
  • Thrips are widely distributed and polyphagous.
  • Generally of minor importance but occasionally serious.
  • Adults are minute (1 mm), slender, soft bodied insects with heavily fringed wings.

Symptoms


Thrips infested
young shoot

Discolored tissues
on developing fruit


Scab like
tissues on
ripened fruit

  • Nymphs and adults lacerate the tissues and suck the oozing cell sap.
  • C.indicus and R.cruentatus feed on leaves and S.dorsalis on inflorescence, and young fruits.
  • Leaf feeding species feed on mesophyll near leaf tips.
  • Affected leaves show silvery sheen and bear small spots of faecal matter.
  • In case of severe infestation young leaves remain small, leaf tips turn brown and get curled.
  • Inflorescence and young fruits when infested show discoloured tissues at the feeding site, which subsequently turn brown.

Control

  • If the infestation is severe, can be controlled by either dimethoate or phosphamidon.

 
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Ikisan - Tea Mosquito Bug in Mango

Tea-Mosquito Bug

Scientific Name :

Helopeltis antonii

Family :

Miridae

Order :

Hemiptera
  • major pest of cahsew, occasionally damages mango and other fruit crops.
  • Found in Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Adult is a reddish-brown bug with black head, red thorax, and black and white abdomen.
  • A knobbed process arises mid-dorsally on thorax.


Necrotic lesions on shoots

Symptoms

  • Eggs are inserted into epidermis of tender shoots and axis of inflorescence.
  • Adults and nymphs feed on petioles, tender shoots and leaf veins causing necrotic lesions.
  • Drying of shoots, inflorescence and dropping of the flowers and young fruits is seen.

Control

  • If infestation is severe, spray insecticides like endosulfan or carbaryl.


Peeled stem showing necrotic lesions


 
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Ikisan - Fruitborer in Mango

Fruit Borer

  • A major pest in Orissa and coastal Andhra Pradesh.
  • Pest is active from January to May. Adults lay eggs on fruits. After hatching larvae bore into fruits.
  • Fully grown caterpillars (25 mm) have red bands on body alternating with white bands.

Damaged fruits

Symptoms
  • Caterpillars bore into the fruit at the bottom (beak region) and feed inside reaching kernels.
  • Entrance hole is plugged with excreta.
  • Affected fruits rot and fall prematurely.
  • A single larva can damage many small fruits.
  • Maturing fruits may also be attacked.
  • There are usually 3-4 generations in a crop season.
  • Larvae of the last generation hibernate in the dead wood.

Kernal damage with several larvae


  • Castor shoot and capsule borer, Conogethes punctiferalis is also seen boring into fruits, when two fruits are seen attached together.

Control

  • Collection and destruction of dead wood after fruit harvest even though laborious, reduces infestation in the following season.
  • Two sprays with synthetic pyrethroids at 15 days interval coinciding with marble-sized fruits are quite effective.

 
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Ikisan - Red Tree Ant in Mango

Red Tree Ant

Scientific Name :

Oecophylla smaragdina

Family :

Formicidae

Order :

Hymenoptera
  • Found throughout India.

Inflorescence entangled in leaf web of O.exvinacea

 

Red tree ants

Symptoms

  • The ants web and stitch together a few leaves, usually at the top of the branches and build their nests.
  • The ants are carnivorous and prey upon small insects.
  • However, indirect damage is caused by protecting insects like aphids and scales, which excrete honeydew.
  • Besides, being ferocious may also be of nuisance to workers around.

Control

  • Nests should be removed and destroyed mechanically or by spraying any of the contact insecticides, after disturbing the nest.

 
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Ikisan - LeafMiner in Mango

Leaf Miner

Scientific Name:

Acrocercops syngramma

Family :

Gracillaridae

Order :

Lepidoptera
  • Reported from Bihar, Bengal, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu as a minor pest.
  • Adults are very small, delicate months with narrow long fringed wings.
  • Caterpillars are apodous, and pale greenish-yellow.

Symptoms


White blister-like mines

  • Tiny caterpillars mine under the dorsal epidermis of tender leaves and feed within, as a result greyish-white blisters appear on leaves.

Control

  • If required spray dimethoate or monocrotophos.

 
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Ikisan - LeafWebber in Mango

Leaf Webber

Scientific Name :

Orthaga exvinacea

Family :

Pyralidae

Order :

Lepidoptera
  • Commonly found throughout the plains of South India.
  • Caterpillars are slender, pale green with dark bands.

Symptoms

Nest of dried leaves made by O. exvinacea

  • Eggs are laid singly or in clusters on leaves
  • On hatching caterpillars feed gregariously by scraping the leaf surface.
  • Soon they web together tender shoots and leaves appear like nest of leaves from a distance.
  • After flowering, inflorescence may also be webbed alongwith leaves.

Control

  • Remove and destroy the leaf webs and spray with any of the contact insecticides.

 
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Ikisan - Minor pestsof Mango

Minor Pests

  • While over a hundred species of fruit sucking moths have been reported from various parts of the world. 11 have been observed in this country and, of these, 4 are common.
  • They mostly damage the ripe or ripening fruits.
  • Othreis materna L. lays eggs singly on the under surface of the leaves.
  • They hatch out in two or three days.
  • The larval period lasts from 7 to 15 days.
  • The duration of pupal period is from 7 to 13 days.
  • Thus the duration of life cycle from egg to moth emergence lasts from 22 to 27 days during July and September.
  • The longevity of the adult lasts from 24 to 40 days but sometimes as long as 10 weeks.
  • The caterpillars feed on certain wild creepers.
  • There may be two or three overlapping generations in a season.
  • The moths become active during the night and fly long distances in search of ripe or ripening fruits, probably attracted by their odour.
  • The abdomen and hind-wings have an orange-yellow ground colour and the latter are marked black.
  • The young caterpillars are at first green but become velvety and acquire beautiful patterns of colour (black and purple predominant) later on.
  • These by themselves are not injurious.
  • Moths of Calpe emarginata Fabr.
  • Appear just after rains in June and July and lay eggs on the under surface of leaves.
  • The incubation, pre-pupal and pupal periods are 2, 1 to 2, and 10 to 17 days, respectively.
  • There are several overlapping generations from June-July to October.
  • Achoea janata L.appears in nature during June-July, and lays eggs on early-sown castor crop.
  • Incubation, larval and pupal periods are 4 to 6, 9 to 16 and 8 to 12 days, respectively, from May to October and there are four to five overlapping generations.
  • It hibernates in winter (November to February) and aestivates from March to May in pupal stage.
  • The longevity of moth, when fed, is 8 to 12 days.
  • The larval-food plants growing in and around the orchards should be removed and destroyed regularly.
  • Light traps should be put up in the orchards to trap the moths for destroying them.
  • The shoots, foliage and inflorescence of the mango trees are damage by the caterpillars of several speices of moths and of these only few prove to be pests of any real economic importance.
  • Caterpillars of chlumetia transversa Wlk. Bore the young roots of mango, which become hollow and later dry up.
  • The castor-slug caterpillar, Parasa lipida G., a green striped and spotted caterpillar, Bombotelia jocosatrix G., the tussock hairy caterpillar, Euproctis scintillaus W., and the larva of the butterfly Euthalia garuda M. are sometimes found feeding on the foliage of mango trees.
  • The slender pale-green shoot-webbing caterpillar of Orthaga exyinacea M. occasionally becomes serious and on the trees infested with this pest numerous webbed and dry top shoots become conspicuous.
  • The caterpillars of Acrocercops syngramma M. mine the leaves and produce blister marks on the tender foliage.
  • These caterpillars have never been a serious problem to orchardists.
  • Their control measures have also not been worked out.

 
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Ikisan - Woody Gall of Mango

Woody Gall

Mango tree with woody galls

.
  • Woody galls of 10-15 inches diameter are formed on limbs and branches.
  • The galls are abundant on Chnnasuvarnarekha, Langra and moerate in Neelam and Thothapuri.
  • Galls affect the health of the tree.
  • Remedy lies in removal of galls using saw and applying Bordeaux paste to cut surface.

 
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