The potato tuber raised from autumn crop can be utilized can be utilized
for spring crop sowing after breaking the dormancy of produce.
While breaking dormancy, the following points must be taken into
Select the produce for seed purpose by separating the tubers to be
used for tubers.
Keep the produce free from soil adhering on its surface by arranging
On account of cold weather during spring sowing, the seed tubers may
be cut in to small pieces.
While giving cuts to tubers, eyes should not be damaged.
Each tuber can be divided in to 2 4 pieces, and take care to cut
the longitudinally as there are more eyes on the crown end than at the
Each cut piece should have the weight of 30 g.
Each cut piece should have at least two eyes on its surface.
Do not sow the cut pieces without breaking dormancy. The autumn crop
tubers have about 2 3 months dormancy period
Use Ethylene Chlorohydrin (1 liter for 2 tons of seed tubers) followed
by the thio-urea solution (1% or 1 kg of chemical for 1 ton of seed
tubers) followed by final treatment with GA (Gibberellic acid 1 ppm
for 10 minutes).
Treat tubers with Ethylene Chlorohydrin (without making into pieces)
for 24 hours, @ 1 liter for 2.0 tons of seed under cover or in an enclosed
For effective use of Ethylene Chlorohydrin, digout trenches and put
the seed in it and treat with this chemical taking care that these trenches
when closed are air proof.
Follow the above treated material with thiourea treatment.
Dissolve 1 kg thio-urea in 100 liter of water and dip the seed in
lots for one hour.
Solution made once can be utilized for the other lots and seed tubers
should be free from soil.
The same solution can be utilized for 5 6 lots without affecting
the efficiency of dormancy breaker.
Prepare separately, 1ppm solution of Gibberellic acid (1 mg in 1000
liter water) and keep the tubers in this solution for 10 minutes
Cut the seed into small pieces for sowing spring crop of potato.
Maximum germination power will be in 12 months after harvest and then
When the tuber is planted before and after the proper age, °eneration
is proportionate to the time interval.
Seed tubers of the longer storage grow more stem than those from short
storage, number of stems corresponding to age of the tubers
Germinating potato tubers at 20 °C resulted in a morbid yield increase
over those sprouted at 10 ° C before planting.
Germinating at 20 ° C in the dark also increased branching of sprouts
and no. of stems. Under these conditions gibberellin activity in leaves
decreased and that in sprouts increased.
The low temperature germination increased the gibberellin and auxin
activity in leaves.
Weight of sprouts increases with age of tubers as a result of accelerated
sprout growth and an increase in the number of sprouts per tuber
Age of tuber may be detected by changes in type of sprout growth
The one sprout stage
The multiple sprout stage
The branching stage
The small tuber formation stage.
As number of stem increases, the number of tubers formed also increases
and average size of tuber is likely to decrease. Sprouted seed with
only 1 or 2 sprout per piece result in a crop with a higher proportion
of large potatoes under these situation.
When all but one sprout were removed before planting, an average of
20.5 tuber per plant were produced, many of saleable size
When seed pieces were restricted to one stem the no. of tubers was
reduced and high proportion of large tubers were formed.
Removal of the first sprout results in a greater number of sprouts
The no. of sprouts increases in proportion to the weight of the seed
Seed stored under warm conditions soon after harvest produce few sprouts
Pre germination of tubers results in a greater development of the
root system and a higher proportion of root to tops. Early varieties
react more in this manner than do late ones.
The main factors considered for method of planting are
Purpose for which Potatoes are grown
Area to be planted and size of field.
Availability of tractor and Potato planter.
Availability of labor.
Availability of seed size planting.
The plant spacing depends upon the purpose for which the
crop is sown i.e. whether for ware / commercial purpose or seed purpose.
If the crop is sown for seed purpose and large sized seeds are sown
at narrow spacing, it will produce large number uniform sized tubers.
If the large sized potatoes are sown at wider spacing, it will produce
large sized and fewer tubers generally, medium sized tubers (3.75 cm
diameters) are considered suitable for Potato sowing.
If large area to be planted, potato planter not only save labor but
also ensure timely and accurate sowing at desired depth and spacing.
In case of small area, sowing with spades prove equally beneficial.
Moreover, in small fields where heavy machinery does not hold good,
manually sowing is preferred.
On account of the use of potato planter seasonally, small and marginal
farmers do not afford to purchase it. However, large farmer do prefer
the sowing with planter.
Availability of labor and as and when required also decide the sowing.
No labor scarcity at cheaper rate, sowing manually proves equally
The spacing between the intra-seed placements depends upon the seed
Large and medium sized Potato for attaining high tuber yield should
be placed at a distance of 15-20 cm.
The distance between row to row is recommended for high tuber yield
realization at 60 cm apart.
For manually planting of tubers, following points need attention
Apply all fertilizer at the prepared field by broadcasting which will
be mixed with soil at ridge formation with spades / manual bund maker
Place the Potato tubers at the marker sign at a fixed distance.
The soil is placed on these tubers up to 7.5 cm height with manual
bend maker (Jandra) or with spade.
Too high ridges formation delays the germination of tubers.
Less than 6 cm height of ridge cause sun-burn to the tubers.
All the Potato tubers should be covered thoroughly.
Care is taken that seed does not come in direct contact with fertilizer
otherwise the seed will not germinate.
Apply irrigation after the sowing of Potato tubers, to provide sufficient
moisture required for the germination. Of the tubers and repeat irrigation
after 8 10 days interval.
Do not allow the level of water to rise more than half otherwise the
Potato tubers will rot, due to crustation of top soil.
Flat planting is common in areas having light sandy soils.
Do follow 2 earthing; first 25-30 days after sowing and second 40-50
days after sowing in flat planting it. This method is not considered
a scientific one.
Planting on ridges is done after preparation of field; the ridges
of 30 cm height and 60 cm width are made with the help of spade (Jandra).
Planting is done either at the top or on the sides of ridges.
Scientifically, Planting with Potato planter has been found very effective
with respect to the germination and for maintaining the proper pant
The cropping sequence in which potatoes are grown.
The availability of seed of varieties
The purpose for which potatoes are being grown.
High temperature causes rotting of the seed during autumn season.
The sowing time for autumn crop in Punjab extends from early September
to mid October.
Moreover, the high temperature at germination increases the incidence
of insect pest particularly sap sucking insect and haulms leaves becomes
Low temperature delays the appearance of sprouts and therefore optimum
sowing time for spring potatoes is first week of January.
On account of low temperature in spring season does not pose any problem
for the rotting of seed.
Therefore, potato seed may be used after cutting into small piece;
each comprising of at least 2 eyes and 30g weight.
The best time identified for the planting of potato is when the maximum
and minimum temperature ranges from 30 °C to 32 ° C and 18 ° C to 20
° C respectively.
In Punjab, usually, rainy season is over by mid September and if sowing
is done too early, rainfall many time reduces the potato emergence by
creating crust formation, causes rotting of seed.
While practising sowing, rainfall recorded must be taken into account.
The optimum time for autumn potato sowing is at the fag end of rainy
The good physical condition comprising well pulverized field soil,
free from clod and with optimum moisture content for ridge formation
at sowing time.
Such conditions prevail only if optimum moisture is present in the
This factor is also taken care of by the rainfall intensity and interval.
Wet condition creates hindrance in field preparation which influences
the emergence intensity of potatoes.
Potato being a short duration crop fits well in different cropping
Adoption of 200 or 300 or 400 cropping index sequence will determine
the sowing time, which is based on the varieties duration and purpose
of potato cultivation.
These types of potatoes varieties are recommended for cultivation
viz., early varieties, mid season varieties and late season varieties.
The total duration not only affect the yield but also decide the field
The availability of seed plays a crucial role about the time of sowing.
Early varieties, mature in 75 90 days should be grown in early September,
mid season varieties in late September to early October and late season
varieties mature in 120 days should be planted in end October to early
Above all, the purpose decides about the sowing time.
If crop is sown for commercial / ware purpose, it should be planted
early to fetch good margin by sending the produce in the market in off
Secondly, multiplication or for getting high productivity per unit
area, the main growing season is preferred.
While for seed purpose is kept in the field till February or early
March though their haulms are removed in end of December as a protective
measure against the spread of virus diseases.
Keeping in view all the above mentioned factors the sowing time for
different crops is as under