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Sunflower In Indian Languages > Origin > Area And Production > Uses > Nutritional Aspects Of Sunflower Products >


Ikisan - Sunflower in Indian Languages

Sunflower in Indian languages

  • Sunflower is a newly introduced oilseed crop ,But it was grown in India as ornamental plant since ancient times.
  • Sunflower was introduced in India as an oilseed crop for the first time in 1969.
  • Sunflower is an important oilseed crop of today .
  • It can give large quantity of top quality oil per unit area and per unit time

Local names

Bengali Surjamukhi
Oriya Surjamukhi
Hindi Surjamukhi
Assamese

Beliphool,Surjamukhi phool

Punjabi Surjamukhi
Gujarat Surjamukhi
Marathi Surjaphul
Tamil Suriyakanthi
Telugu Proddutirugudu puvvu.

 
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Ikisan - Origin of Sunflower

Origin

  • The cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) is a common sunflower and native of southern United states , from where it was taken to Spain before the middle of the sixteenth century.
  • In nineteenth century the cultivation of sunflower as an oilseed crop began in the former Soviet Union and the majority of the present day varieties grown all over the world trace back their origin to the USSR ,In Hindi the sunflower is called Surajmukhi.
  • The sunflower owes its economic value to its utility as an oilseed or fodder crop.
  • As a fodder or forage crop,sunflower is fed green or converted into silage which is popular in USA,Canada and in some other coutnries.
  • The sunflower crop was introduced into India in 1965 and according to some estimates of the trade and the Vanaspati Manufacturer's Association ,the sunflower was grown in India during 1975-76 as a commercial crop under 3,88,000 hectares of land.
  • The sunflower is gaining ground as a newer oilseed towards self sufficiency in vegetable oils(Vanaspati Ghee )

Sunflower Distribution

  • The cultivated sunflower is evolved in North America, but now it is cultivated in warm temperate, subtropical and tropical climates throughout the world.

 
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Ikisan - Area and Production of Sunflower

Area And Production

  • The Varieties available are cultivated during both Kharif and Rabi seasons.
  • Hybrids also occupy good amount of area in these districts., E.C. 68414, Morden, APSH-11, KBSH-1 and other Varieties and hybrids are popular.
  • It is a relatively new crop to India and cultivated area in the country 10.18 L.ha (2001-02).
  • Andhra Pradesh contributes 2.30 L.ha occupying 2nd place.

Sunflower Area and Production (2000-2002)[Area in Lakh hectares& Poroduction in Lakh tonnes]
Sl.No
State
Rabi 2000-01 Rabi 2000-02
Area Production Area Production
1
Andhra Pradesh
1.00
0.07
2.30
1.60
2
Assam
0.15
0.10
-
-
3
Haryana
0.25
2.17
0.06
0.04
4
Karnataka
5.00
2.20
5.00
3.50
5
MP
0.05
0.03
0.20
0.10
6
Maharastra
2.00
1.20
2.00
1.50
7
Orissa
0.04
0.24
0.05
0.03
8
Punjab
0.30
0.39
-

       -

9
Tamil Nadu
0.07
0.04
0.07
0.05
10
UP
0.20
0.12

     -

       -

11

Others
0.60
0.36
0.50
0.30
12
All India
9.66
5.55
10.18
7.02
Source:Indiamart.com

  • As sunflower crop is a highly cross-pollinated one, it requires different pollination agents and management practices like rubbing of flowers for increased percentage of filled-in grains.
  • Andhra Pradesh stands second in the Country in production next to Karnataka with 1.6 L.T which works out to 17% of the country's production (7.02 L.T) as per 2001-02 figures.
  • In respect of the sunflower yields, the country records an average of 549 Kgs/ha while, Andhra Pradesh per ha yields are 478 Kgs/ha occupying 5th rank in the Country.

Sunflower Productivity

Sl.No

State

Productivity(L.T)

1.

Haryana

1,450

2.

Punjab

1,444

3.

Uttar Pradesh

1,296

4.

Tamilnadu

1,040

5.

Andhra Pradesh

478

6.

All India average

549

Districtwise Area, Production & Productivity of Sunflower in Andhra Pradesh 2003-04

District

Area in Hectares

Production in tonnes

Yield in Kg/ha

1

2 3 4

Srikakulam

753
885
1175

Visakhapatnam

7
8
1175

East Godavari

413
459
1112

West Godavari

2966
3485
1175

Krishna

511
600
1174

Guntur

398
437
1099

Prakasham

19643
24570
1251

Nellore

13293
12845
966

Chittoor

2563
1488
581

Cuddapah

96050
54603
568

Ananthapur

74525
29572
397

Kurnool

216637
142013
656

Mahaboobnagar

37453
28257
754

Rangareddy

852
800
939

Medak

7855
15357
1955

Nizamabad

13321
13985
1050

Adilabad

1144
835
730

Karimnagar

497
898
1806

Warangal

313
461
1473

Khammam

716
778
1087

Nalgonda

847
929
1097

State

490757
333265
679
Source: Season and Crop Report, Ap Govt

Area, Productivity and Production of Sunflower in Andhra Pradesh

Year

Area in lakh hectares

Productivity in Kgs/hect

Production in lakh tonnes

1

2

3

4

1999-2000

2.78

573

1.59

2000-2001

1.97

851

1.68

2001-2002

2.67

820

2.19

2002-2003

4.16

663

2.76

2003-2004

4.91

679

3.33

Average of preceding 5 years (1998-99 to 2002-2003)

2.98

702

2.04

Source: Season and Crop Report, Ap Govt


 
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Ikisan - Uses of Sunflower

Uses Of Sunflower

  • The percent of oil in sunflower is higher (45-50%) over other oil seed crop.
  • Sunflower oil is rich in poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and has a pleasant flavour, an excellent keeping quality, when refined.
  • The oil is used in making margarine and is regarded as good cooking oil.
  • It, being rich in linoleic acid (62.5%), is recommended as a dietary constituent to the heart patients.
  • The Sunflower cake makes a high quality cattle and poultry feed because of higher protein (40-44%) and balanced amino acids.
  • Sunflowers harvested at dough stage (green sunflower) makes an excellent quality forage, specially for milch cattle.

The stem

  • The sunflower stem has rather long bast fibres, and the plant has often been suggested as a source of fibre supply.
  • The fibre is too weak and brittle to be of value for cordage and textile purposes.
  • Paper has been made from the stalks; but in treeless regions, where it is abundantly grown, the highest value is doubtless, obtained for its use as fuel.

The seed

  • Fried sunflower seeds with pepper are a delicacy in the East European countries. The flour is highly nutritive and used in bakery.
  • The hulls are used as fillers in cattle feed and also as fuel.
  • The seeds are used in medicine as diuretic and in treating certain disorders of the respiratory tract.

Oil

  • The oil must be extracted within 90 days of harvesting otherwise it becomes bitter in taste especially when stored under damp conditions. Such seeds also lose their viability.
  • Used for culinary and industrial purposes.
  • The oil content in the seed is about 40 to 45 per cent.
  • The oil is a good substitute for olive oil.
  • In industry, the oil is used in the manufacture of margarine, and in other edible products.
  • Being a semi drying oil, it is used in the paint and varnish industry.
  • In woollen fabric making, it is used for treating shoddy.
  • Sulphonated sunflower oil is used in high coefficient liquid disinfectants.
  • It is extensively used in the soap and cosmetic industry.

Suitable of sunflower in Indian cropping system

  • Sunflower is a drought tolerant crop due to its deep tap root therefore it is the best substitute to all rainfed commercial crops. This can be grown in rabi and summer as I.D crop with higher yield.
  • It is the best substitute for delayed kharif sowing due to delayed onset of monsoon which is very common phenomenon.
  • Because of its short duration nature it can be incorporated in any type of cropping system.
  • Seed cost is very low when compared with groundnut (Roughly cost of groundnut seed/ha is Rs. 2,2250/-) an important oil seed of A.P.
  • Sunflower can be profitably cultivated with less expenditure, limited water, easy cultivation methods, hence small and marginal farmers can take up this crop easily and profitably.
  • Sunflower can be comes to harvest 10-15 days earlier to groundnut. Water requirement, seed requirement (interms of cost also) and cost of cultivation is much less in sunflower over groundnut.
  • Sunflower is a photo-intensive crop, hence, can be grown throughout the year if water is available. But the duration will be extended in winter season or in cold climates.
  • As in other crops no flower drop is seen in sunflower. This may be one of the reasons for more ill filled grains in this crop.
  • Suitable varieties and hybrids are available suit our climatic conditions.
  • Sunflower is an errect growing plant and hence, no shade effect on the component crop if it is grown as an inter crop.

 
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Ikisan - Nutritional aspects of Sunflower products

Nutritional Aspects Of Sunflower Products

  • The seeds contain 20-40 per cent of an edible cooking oil. The defatted sunflower press-cake, produced from decorticated seeds, or the solvent extracted meal, contain 40-80 per cent protein of good digestibility.
  • The sunflower protein is rich in methionine and tryptophan, and the limiting amino acid is lysine.
  • There is no evidence of toxicity in sunflower meal, but the seeds contain a phenolic compound, chlorogenic acid, which causes the defatted flour to darken when it is cooked under neutral or alkaline conditions.
  • This is a major limitation to its acceptability in food products.
  • The refined sunflower oil is richer in mineral contents than groundnut. It contains Vitamins A, D, E and C.
  • The sunflower oil is used for culinary purposes, in the preparation of vanaspati and in the manufacture of soaps and cosmetics.
  • Its cake is rich in protein and is used as cattle and poultry feed enriched with 40% protein containing amino-acids and calcium.
  • Sunflower Oil is also of good quality, even without further refining, and does not contain any linolenic acid, or develop undesirable flavours on heating.
  • Its content of linoleic acid is high and of saturated fatty acids is low, making it preferred oil in medical control diets, for the reduction on hig-serum cholesterol levels.
  • The content of unsaturated fatty acids in sunflower oil varies according to the ecological conditions of growth, from 89 to 91 percent, but much lower contents have been found in sunflower oils produced in very hot climates.

Domestic Utilization of Sunflower Seeds

  • At the subsistence level, the sunflower heads are harvested by hand, sun-dried and mature seeds are rubbed out of the flower centres.
  • The seed kernels are eaten raw, roasted or salted as snacks, like groundnuts.
  • The roasted kernels may be used in a variety of sweatmeats or added for enrichment to soups and sauces.

 
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