Polyphagous, attacks most of the cultivated crops, major pest
of tomato, and widely distributed throughout the country.
Moths are medium sized, stout, pale brown or with reddish brown
tinge, fore wings are olive green to pale brown with a dark brown
circular spot in the centre.
Hind wings are pale-smoky-white with a broad dull blackish outer
Eggs are yellowish white, ribbed, dome shaped, laid singly,
generally on leaves and flowers, but some times on young fruits
Freshly hatched larvae are yellowish white. Full grown caterpillars
are in varied colours, but generally apple green with whitish and dark
grey or brown longitudinal lines, have on lower lateral part a broad
white wavy line. Pupation is in soil.
Life cycle is completed in 4-6 weeks.
Nature of damage
Young larvae feed on tender foliage. while advanced stages attack
Larva bore circular holes and usually thrust only head inside
the fruit to another and may destroy many fruits.
External symptoms appear in the form of a bored hole.
Circular holes on fruits
control of this pest an integrated package has to be adopted transplant
two rows of marigold for every 16 rows of tomato, as a trap crop, as
the female will be attracted to marigold flowers and lay eggs.
synchronous flowering, plant 40 and 25 dats old seedlings of marigold
and tomato, respectively, at a time.
Also monitor the pest through pheremone traps.
Spray 5% neem seed kernel extract to kill early stages larvae Placement
of 15-20 bird perches (T shaped) per ha helps in inviting insectivorous
NPV @ 625 LE/ha during evening hours.
Jaggery @ 1 kg, sandovit or Teepol(100 ml) are to be mixed with NPV
on need basis spary 2 ml Endosulfan, Chlorpyriphos or Quinolphos per
litre of water.
Wide host range, widespread all over India,
affects most of the vegetable crops, often tomato, brinjal, okra are
Root-knot nematodes are small, microscopic,
males are slender and females swollen.
Female lays about 500 eggs in a gelatinous
matrix mostly outside root tissue.
Eggs hatch in 4-7 days and the second
stage larvae infect the plant by entering the roots.
There they feed and moult to reach adulthood.
The females become nearly spherical.
Life cycle is completed in 4 to6 weeks.
M.incognita and M.javanica
are common species attacking vegetables.
Nature of damage
The most characteristic symptom
on the root is production of root galls.
Galls may occur singly or several
galls may coalesce to form very massive galls.
Above ground symptoms are reduced growth,
chlorosis of foliage, susceptibility to wilting, and reduced fruit production.
Fallowing, deep summer ploughing and drying
up infested soils reduce incidence.
Nurseries are the main source of infection
and spread. Ploughing the nursery area, uniformly spreading paddy husk
20 kg/m2 (about 15 cm thick), burning it and ploughing back facilitates
production of nematode-free seedlings.
Crop rotation with mustard is also usefu.l
Application of chopped leaves of Pongamia
or Crotalaria reduces disease severity.
Nursery-bed treatment with Carbofuran
3 G at 65 g/m2 and in main field at 4 kg a.i/ ha are effective.
Polyphagous in nature, major pest of tomato, distributed widely Moths
are stout, pale to dark brown, fore wings greyish browns with wavy white
markings, hind wings are opalescent, semi hyaline, white with dark brown
Freshly hatched larvae feed gregariously, scraping the leaves
from ventral side,
later disperse, feeding voraciously at night on the foliage.
Larvae may also feed on fruits hollowing these out.
Plant castor (50 / acre) as trap crop which attracts the egg
Collect and destroy egg masses and young larvae on skeletonised
leaves both on trap crop castor and also tomato.
Install pheromone traps (@ 4 / acre) to monitor the pest. Spray
5% NSKE to kill early stage larvae.
Flood irrigation may be adopted to bring out hiding larvae.
Grown up larvae can be managed with poison bait (10 kg bran
+ 1 kg jaggery + 1 It Monocrotophos or 1 kg Carbaryl + little
water) distributed in the field near base of the plant.