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Preparation Of Beds > Planting Time > Transplanting >


Ikisan - nursery bed preparation for tomato

Nursery

Nursery bed preparation

  • Since the seeds are very small in size, they are normally sown in raised nursery beds and the seedlings are planted in the main field later on. About 300-350 g of seeds will be required to plant one hectare.
  • Since the seeds of F1 hybrids are costly (Rs.15,000/- to 20,000/- per Kg), seeds have to be sown individually in small plastic cups or ice cream cups in which 1-2 holes are made at the bottom to ensure drainage.
  • By this method the quantity of seeds required to raise seedlings to plant one hectare can be reduced to 70-90 g.
  • During last week of May or first week of December, raised beds of 60-70 cm width and of convenient length are prepared.
  • Avoid using same place for nursery bed preparation for every year.
  • The nursery bed has to be properly leveled and nursery beds of 15 cm height and 0.8 m width and with convenient length beds are prepared.
  • For one m2 of nursery area apply 5kg well rotten FYM and 20 g of each N, P and K fertiliser, and also apply 2.5g carbofuran or 200 g of neem cake.
  • For management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis an integrated plant protection strategy using botanicals and bio-agents has been developed.
  • While preparing the nursery beds, neem cake /castor cake/ neam leaf/ castor leaf/ pongamia leaf/ calotropis leaf has to be incorporated @ 400 g/m2 followed by application of spore suspension of nematophagus fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus or Verticillium chlamydosporium and then inoculation of a vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae Glomus fasciculatum or G.mossae.
  • This combined treatment reduced the infestation of root-knot nematode and reniform nematode simultaneously increased the multiplication of endomycorrhizae and its colonization of tomato root which inturn could protect the crop from the nematodes in the main field also. Across the beds prepared, lines are drawn at a spacing of 2.5 cm.

Seed treatment with biofertilizer

  • The seeds required for one hectare can be mixed with required quantity of rice Kanji just to have a thin coating.
  • Then 100-200 g. of Azospirillum culture can be sprinkled over this and stirred thoroughly by a stick.
  • The treated seeds are dried in shade for 30 minutes and then sown sparsely along the lines in cm depth and then covered by the topsoil.
  • To protect the seeds from heavy rains, the seedbeds are covered by a thin layer or straw or dried grass.
  • The beds are then watered using rose can.
  • About 4 cents of nursery area will be required to plant one hectare.
  • Along the edges of the beds, BHC 10% dust is applied to prevent ants from taking away the seeds.
  • The seeds germinate in about seven to eight days.
  • After germination, the straw cover is removed and the beds can be irrigated directly.
  • To avoid damping off disease, the seedbeds have to be drenched with copper oxychloride solution (2.5 g/lit).
  • Twenty days after sowing, spary 1.5ml monocrotophos and 2 g zineb/ litre.
  • The seedlings are ready for transplanting in about 25-30 days after sowing.

 
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Ikisan - planting time for tomato

Planting Time

  • In the northern plains where frost occurs during winter, usually two successful crops are taken, whereas in frost-free areas where winter is not severe three crops in a year are possible.
  • In regions where frost occurs, the first transplanting is done February after the frost is over and the second crop transplanting is done around July when the rain has set in.
  • In the southern plains where there is no danger of frost,The first transplanting is done in December-January, Second June-July Third in September-October depending on the irrigation facilities available.

 
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Ikisan - Transplanting of tomato

Transplanting

  • The plants must be hardened as they approach planting-out time. This is done by exposing the seedlings to open weather or by withholding irrigation now and then.
  • A suitable tomato plant for transplanting is 7.5 cm to 10 cm in height and has a good sturdy stem.
  • The spacing recommended for the autumn-winter crop is 75 x 60 cm and for the spring-summer crop 75 x 45 cm.
  • Use starter solution (a dilute solution of nitrogen, phosphorous and potash) at the time of transplanting helps in quick establishment of seedlings in mainfield.
  • The transplanting is done in small flat beds in light soils where irrigation is available and on shoulders in shallow furrow where irrigation water is scanty.
  • In heavy soil it is usually transplanted on ridges and during the rains also it is advantageous to plant the seedlings on ridges.
  • For indeterminate varieties/hybrids, the seedlings have to be staked using bamboo sticks of two metre length.
  • Instead of staking, planting of seedlings in broad ridge system can be adopted.
  • Flat broad ridges of 90 cm width and 15 cm height are prepared.
  • The seedlings are planted in the furrows at a spacing of 30 cm and the plant is allowed to spread on the broad ridge.
  • Irrigation water is allowed only in the narrow furrows and the broad ridge is kept free of moisture.
  • This will prevent the fruits coming in contact with wet soil thereby rotting of fruit is prevented.
  • In the normal system of planting, the seedlings are planted on the sides of the ridges and if left unstaked the fruits will rot by coming in contact with the wet soil.

 
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