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  Nutrient Management

Introduction > Fertilizers > Micronutrients > Foliar Nutrition > NPK Deficiency >


Ka English

Introduction

  • Chilli crop responds well to application of both organic manure and fertilizers. Heavy application of organic manures is practiced in irrigated areas.
  • Usually 25-30 tons of organic manures per hectare are incorporated in soil before transplanting. Under rainfed conditions normally spot manuring is practiced before transplanting.
  • The amount of organic manure applied under rainfed conditions vary from 5 to 10 tons per hectare. The manure applied should be allowed to wet by rains before transplanting so that success of transplants will be more.
  • Sheep penning is a common practice in transitional belt of Karnataka and Maharashtra. The number of sheep penned is about 5 to 10 thousand per hectare for one or two nights. The droppings and urine excreted are immediately incorporated in the soil by harrowing.
  • Farmers of this region are of the opinion that sheep penning is better than application of compost or farm yard manure. This may be because the urine excreted is rich in nitrogen and moreover there is saving in transport of manure to the field.
  • In general, chilli yields are fairly high when fertilizers are applied with organic manures rather than either fertilizers alone or organic manures alone.

 
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Ka English

Fertilizers

  • Chilli crop generally responds well to nitrogen and potash application rather than phosphorus application. However, this depends upon the inherent fertility status of the soil. Quite a large number of experiments have been conducted on response of chilli crop to fertiliers both under irrigated and rainfed conditions both for greens and for ripe dry fruits. Response of chilli crop to fertilizers depends upon the variety, type of soil, fertility status of the soil and soil moisture. Usually phosphorus and potash fertilizers are applied in one dose normally 15 days after transplanting while nitrogenous fertilizers are applied in two or three splits at 15 days after transplanting and a month after first application of fertilizers.
  • Growth and vigour of transplanted chilli seedlings in the main field depends on the nursery management also. Seedlings grown under well manured conditions will have good root system and vigorous shoot growth. These seedlings establish better and yield higher.

Fertilizer recommendation for Karnataka (kg/ha)

  Rainfed Irrigated
Nitrogen 100 150
Phosphorus 50 75
Potassium 50 75
  • Availability of nitrogen is low under high moisture which affects uptake of nitrogen. It is because of this reason in vartisols (black cotton soils) when there is incessant rains, eventhough fertilizers are applied as per recommendations, chilli plants look pale yellow and sickly in appearance.
  • Under dry and wet soil condition high soil moisture reduced N absorption or N availability at low levels of nitrogen. The inhibiting effect of high moisture on N uptake was overcome by application of high rates of nitrogen. Application of phosphorus fertilizers increased nitrogen uptake. Moisture and nitrogen application rate affected the recovery of fertilizer nitrogen. Under high soil moisture conditions, fertilizer nitrogen recovery increased with rate of application. The opposite effect was noted under the dry moisture regime. Total phosphorus uptake increased with application of nitrogen both phosphorus fertilized and non-fertilized soils. Total phosphorus uptake decreased as available moisture decreased.
  • Response to fertilizer application depends mainly on moisture status of soil, weather condition and incidence to pests and disease. In years of good rainfall conditions, application of fertilizers have given fairly high yields. Incidence of insect pest especially thrips and mites and leaf curl disease will mask the effect of fertilizers. Both in North and South India there is a good response to nitrogen application rather than phosphorus and potassium.

 
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Ka English

Micronutrients

  • Response to micronutrients depends upon the nutrient status, soil pH, climatic conditions etc.
  • In India, good response to zinc application has been observed in maize and paddy crop in Indo-Gangetic belt and Deccan plateau.
  • Very little work has been done on micro-nutrient requirement of chilli crop.
  • Application of 10 kg of copper sulphate, zinc sulphate and manganese sulphate to soil gave higher yield of chilli (variety Sathur Samba) rather than foliar application.

 
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Ka English

Foliar Nutrition

  • Chilli crop has responded very well to foliar nutrition especially to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Pesticides, especially inspecticides and fungicides are regularly sprayed to the chilli crop.
  • As a result, it is possible to mix some of the nutrients along with pesticide sprays looking to their compatibility.
  • Foliar application of nitrogen in the form of urea, phosphorus in the form of single super phosphate triple super phosphate or diammonium phosphate and potassium in the form of potassium sulphate are made. Foliar application of nitrogen and potassium have given good response rather than phosphorus.
  • At Dharwad, Foliar application of nitrogen in the form of urea, phosphate in the form of triple superphosphate and potassium in the form of potassium sulphate were made either alone or in combination to chilli crop variety Byadgi, for two seasons. There was good response to application of nitrogen.
  • Control plot recorded 869 lb of dry chillies / acre while application of 5 lb of urea and 10 lb urea gave 979 and 1023 lb of dry chillies / acre, respectively.
  • At Dharwad, spraying urea at the rate of 5 kg/ha increased yield to 25.3 q/ha of dry chillies as against 21.5 q/ha with control plot.

 
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Ka English

Deficiency symptoms

Nitrogen

  • Heavy application may increase vegetative growth and delay maturity.

Deficiency symptoms

  • Stunted growth, leaves pale green older leaves are small and uniformly pale green, start getting bleached from margin inwards until finally the entire leaf is bleached to pale white.

Phosphate fertilizers

  • Induces flowering in chilli.

Deficiency symptoms

  • Leaves small and bluish green in the beginning, later turning to dirty grayish green.
  • K : > 50 kg/ha, increases the concentration of nucleoproteins in the leaves and enables the plant to synthesize more carbohydrates.

Deficiency symptoms

  • Retarded plant growth to a lesser extent in comparison with nitrogen and phosphorus. The leaves are normal green but smaller in size with wrinkled surface.
  • Foliar symptoms start with the appearance of very small whitish necrotic spots dispersed over the entire lamina in the older leaves.
  • If 2 tonnes of neem cake is applied, then the fertiliser dosage would be 75 : 25 : 25 NPK kg /ha.
  • 60: 30 : 25 NPK kg/ha is recommended along with pre treatment of seedlings with Azospirillum culture.

 
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