Chilli crop responds well to application of both organic manure and
fertilizers. Heavy application of organic manures is practiced in irrigated
Usually 25-30 tons of organic manures per hectare are incorporated
in soil before transplanting. Under rainfed conditions normally spot
manuring is practiced before transplanting.
The amount of organic manure applied under rainfed conditions vary
from 5 to 10 tons per hectare. The manure applied should be allowed
to wet by rains before transplanting so that success of transplants
will be more.
Sheep penning is a common practice in transitional belt of Karnataka
and Maharashtra. The number of sheep penned is about 5 to 10 thousand
per hectare for one or two nights. The droppings and urine excreted
are immediately incorporated in the soil by harrowing.
Farmers of this region are of the opinion that sheep penning is better
than application of compost or farm yard manure. This may be because
the urine excreted is rich in nitrogen and moreover there is saving
in transport of manure to the field.
In general, chilli yields are fairly high when fertilizers are applied
with organic manures rather than either fertilizers alone or organic
Chilli crop generally responds well to nitrogen and potash application
rather than phosphorus application. However, this depends upon the inherent
fertility status of the soil. Quite a large number of experiments have
been conducted on response of chilli crop to fertiliers both under irrigated
and rainfed conditions both for greens and for ripe dry fruits. Response
of chilli crop to fertilizers depends upon the variety, type of soil,
fertility status of the soil and soil moisture. Usually phosphorus and
potash fertilizers are applied in one dose normally 15 days after transplanting
while nitrogenous fertilizers are applied in two or three splits at
15 days after transplanting and a month after first application of fertilizers.
Growth and vigour of transplanted chilli seedlings in the main field
depends on the nursery management also. Seedlings grown under well manured
conditions will have good root system and vigorous shoot growth. These
seedlings establish better and yield higher.
Fertilizer recommendation for Karnataka (kg/ha)
Availability of nitrogen is low under high moisture which affects
uptake of nitrogen. It is because of this reason in vartisols (black
cotton soils) when there is incessant rains, eventhough fertilizers
are applied as per recommendations, chilli plants look pale yellow and
sickly in appearance.
Under dry and wet soil condition high soil moisture reduced N absorption
or N availability at low levels of nitrogen. The inhibiting effect of
high moisture on N uptake was overcome by application of high rates
of nitrogen. Application of phosphorus fertilizers increased nitrogen
uptake. Moisture and nitrogen application rate affected the recovery
of fertilizer nitrogen. Under high soil moisture conditions, fertilizer
nitrogen recovery increased with rate of application. The opposite effect
was noted under the dry moisture regime. Total phosphorus uptake increased
with application of nitrogen both phosphorus fertilized and non-fertilized
soils. Total phosphorus uptake decreased as available moisture decreased.
Response to fertilizer application depends mainly on moisture status
of soil, weather condition and incidence to pests and disease. In years
of good rainfall conditions, application of fertilizers have given fairly
high yields. Incidence of insect pest especially thrips and mites and
leaf curl disease will mask the effect of fertilizers. Both in North
and South India there is a good response to nitrogen application rather
than phosphorus and potassium.
Chilli crop has responded very well to foliar nutrition especially
to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Pesticides, especially inspecticides
and fungicides are regularly sprayed to the chilli crop.
As a result, it is possible to mix some of the nutrients along with
pesticide sprays looking to their compatibility.
Foliar application of nitrogen in the form of urea, phosphorus in
the form of single super phosphate – triple super phosphate or diammonium
phosphate and potassium in the form of potassium sulphate are made.
Foliar application of nitrogen and potassium have given good response
rather than phosphorus.
At Dharwad, Foliar application of nitrogen in the form of urea, phosphate
in the form of triple superphosphate and potassium in the form of potassium
sulphate were made either alone or in combination to chilli crop variety
Byadgi, for two seasons. There was good response to application of nitrogen.
Control plot recorded 869 lb of dry chillies / acre while application
of 5 lb of urea and 10 lb urea gave 979 and 1023 lb of dry chillies
/ acre, respectively.
At Dharwad, spraying urea at the rate of 5 kg/ha increased yield
to 25.3 q/ha of dry chillies as against 21.5 q/ha with control plot.