Types of Irrigation and water management
- Generally border strip and check basin methods are being followed
by farmers to irrigate groundnut. Besides, sprinklers are also used
to some extent. Border strip method is the most suitable surface method
of irrigation for groundnut.
- According to soil type and slope of the field, strips of 3-5 m width
are formed and water from main channel is diverted into border strip.
Labour cost for forming bund is less in this method than check basin.
However, this method is not suitable if field is too sloppy or when
field is not well leveled.
- In the check basin method, water is used more precisely. According
to the slope of the field, water is diverted to sub-channel and then
finally to sub-plot. More land area is wasted by bunds in this method.
- Sprinkler system of irrigation saves water to about 30-50 %. Although
this system is more efficient and gives higher yield of groundnut, the
initial investment on this is also high. This method is advantageous
when water is a limiting factor as it is 50 % more efficient in use
of water than the surface method.
Water Management in Kharif Groundnut
- About 84% of groundnut in India is grown in kharif in rainfed areas.
Due to vagaries of monsoon, kharif groundnut shows great unstability
in production and productivity. The timing and duration of moisture
stress is responsible for reduction in yield.
- Moisture stress at an early stage delays reproductive development
and at a later stage hastens attainment of maturity and causes heavy
reduction in pod yield.
- Pre-monsoon sowing and life saving irrigation during critical growth
period are the two important aspects considered for getting higher yield
in kharif groundnut.
- If one irrigation is made available for pre-monsoon sowing followed
by a life- saving irrigation at the time of prolonged dry spell during
critical growth stage, yield level of groundnut may be increased significantly.
- The following points may be taken into consideration for conserving
the available soil moisture or to mitigate the ill effects of water
stress in kharif groundnut.
- Spraying of potassium chloride (5 g/lit of water) during flowering
and pod development stages.
- Kaolin (30 g/ lit of water) as foliar antitranspirants applied at
30 DAS and at 60 DAS reduced the leaf temperature and increased the
pod yield by 15.6 per cent over control.
- Soil incorporation of decomposed coconut coirpith @12.5 t/ha.
- Soil mulches
- Broad bed and furrow system of planting, scooping of soil at random
and ridge tieing.
- Border strip irrigation is recommended in command areas in light textured
Water Management in Rabi/Summer Groundnut
- Rabi/summer groundnut is grown in irrigated areas. Since irrigated
groundnut is less dependent on weather unlike rainfed crop, possibilities
for increasing production are immense. Depending upon soil temperature,
irrigated groundnut is sown at different times.
- Rabi groundnut is grown on a limited scale in areas where winter is
not severe and night temperatures do not fall below 150C.
Rabi crops are sown from September up to December. It is grown under
residual soil moisture after the harvest of rice mainly in the coastal
- The moisture, which is enough or sometimes more at the time of sowing,
starts depleting faster with the advancement of summer. Irrigation,
if provided during this period, can increase pod yield substantially.
Normally 5 to 9 irrigation are required for rabi groundnut.
- Sowing of summer groundnut is done from second fortnight of December
to February. On an average summer crop requires 9 to12 irrigation depending
upon soil type and atmospheric temperature.
- Drainage is a very important aspect of crop production. Plants of
groundnut under saturated soil become yellow and degree of yellowing
increases with increased period of saturation. Its overall effect leads
to poor yield. Poor drainage causes chlorosis in groundnut. Chlorotic
symptoms of the foliage clearly manifest 60 days after sowing. Soil
with excess quantities of water contains inadequate oxygen which affects
respiration. It has also been indicated that oxygen in the pegging area
is necessary for fruit production.
- The average total water consumption varies from 450-500 mm.
- The crop has to be irrigated immediately after sowing and subsequently
no irrigation given till 21 days. This stress enables the plant for
better germination, growth and enables the root to go deeper for a better
- Any irrigation given within 21 days given reduces the yield by affecting
the growth of the plant.
- The crop in given second irrigation on 21st day followed
by normal irrigation once in 10 days.
- The critical stage when water is needed for this crop are flowering,
peg penetration and pod development.
- The water requirement for groundnut reaches a maximum during flowering
stage and continues up to peg penetration and pod formation stage since
most dry matter is accumulated at this stage.
- Moisture stress during this period causes greatest reduction up to
30-35 per cent in pod yield.
- Moisture stress from sowing to active pegging do not appreciably influence
the pod yield, was found to be favoured by the crop in reducing its
internodal length and induces synchronized flowering.
- The evapo-transpiration is less during the first 35 DAS and reaches
peak during flowering and peg penetration stages. Hence, the crop can
be irrigated once in 17 to 18 days in the early phase and once in 8
to 9 days during pegging and pod formation and once in 17 to 18 days
at maturity phase.
- In heavy soils of Periyar – Vaigai command area, application of 20
t of coconut coir waste/ha improves the physical soil characters there
by increases the pod yield.
- Under limited water supply conditions one irrigation during vegetative
and maturity phases can be skipped, which will save 100 mm of irrigation
water and there is no deleterious yield reductions.
- Application of organic mulches to a depth of 2.5 cm 30 DAS was found
to save two irrigation to the tune of 100 mm and an yield increase of
10 per cent was observed.
- Application of mulches also has an added advantage of reducing the
weed growth and lower the incidence of pests and diseases.
- Spraying of potassium chloride (5 g/lit of water) during the critical
stages of flowering , pod development and pod maturation will aid to
mitigate the ill effects of moisture stress at these crop growth stages
and minimises the yield reductions from 18 (unsprayed control) to 7
(KCl sprayed) per cent.
- Sprinkler irrigation not only saves irrigation water (18-24%) but
also increases the pod yield due to better soil aeration and basal pod