Crop Establishment

Spacing Sowing Time Method Of Sowing Post Rainy Season Pigeonpea Crop Rotation Mixed Cropping


  • Long duration varieties of pigeonpea are tall, spreading and occupy the field for about 250-270 days.
  • These varieties are planted at wider row spacing of 90-120 cm and about 30 cm between the plants particularly under rainfed conditions.
  • Under irrigated conditions. row early maturing varieties are more popular as they fit well in double cropping systems with other crops.
  • These varieties are planted at a row spacing of 50-75 cm and plant to plant spacing of 15-20 cm.
  • In case of April planted pigeonpea, a row spacing of 90-120 cm is recommended as the vegetative growth is much higher than June planted pigeonpea.
  • Depending upon the size of seed and spacing, 15-25 kg/ha seed of pigeonpea is sufficient.


Sowing Time

  • Pigeonpea is a traditionally Kharif crop sown in June-July with onset of Monsoon in various agro-climatic zones of India.
  • Shot duration varieties of pigeonpea are now becoming popular in the irrigated area.
  • These varieties are harvested much earlier than the occurrence of frost/cyclones and can also be fitted well in to multiple cropping systems.
  • Planting of early pigeonpea before the onset of monsoon in the month of June is recommended for higher yields
  • planting with onset of monsoon was the optimum because the ealier plantings emulated the reproductive phase during the period of heavy rainfall which ultimately caused drop of flowers and pods.
  • Delay in planting reduces the yield of pigeonpea
  • Delay in planting, caused reduction in the duration of crop, plant height, number of branches and pods.
  • However, the impact on the protein content was low.


Method Of Sowing

  • Pigeonpea is generally broadcasted.
  • Line sowing is superior over broadcasting. Broadcasting results in uneven plant population which ultimately results in low yield.
  • In such areas where temporary waterlogging take place, planting on ridges have been found superior.


Post Rainy Season Pigeonpea

  • When pigeonpea is grown in the cool post rainy season in India, it matures sooneer and grows much less tall than when it is sown at the beginning of the rainy season.
  • To obtain satisfactory yields in the post rainy season the crop requires 12-30 plants/m2 . 3-6 times more than required by the same genotype in the rainy season.
  • Since soil moisture often becomes limiting factor is the pest rainy season, yields tend to declain beyond a certain population.
  • May yields can be obtained at 12 plants m2 and any further increase in population led to decline in yield.
  • Evidences are also available for no variation in yield from 33-45 plant m-2 however it all depends an soil type and its moisture holding capacity.


Crop Rotation

Redgram is grown in summer and Kharif in northern India and Kharif and rabi in sourthern Indian conditions. It may, therefore, be included in several crop rotations. The important rotations are given as under:

  • Paddy - Paddy - Redgram
  • Groundnut+Redgram- Sorghum/Bajra/Maize
  • Groundnut - Rabiredgram
  • Soybean - Rabi redgram
  • Red gram+Urdbean-wheat
  • Black gram-Redgram
  • Green gram-Redgram
  • Red gram - cotton



  • Redgram is mainly grown as mixed with other traditional crops like urdbean, greengram, groundnut, small millets etc.
  • In this system, seeds of different crops are mixed together and broadcasted.
  • Redgram can profitably be grown as intercrop with several widely spaced crops like Black gram, maize, sugarcane, sorghum, etc. One or two rows of red gram could be sown in between two rows of maize
  • Paired planting also can be adopted in Redgram where two rows are made closer and thus this extra space is provided in between two pairs of rows. The overall plant population on area basis is not affected but by the adjustment of rows more space is provided in between two pairs which is utlised by intercrop.
  • Summer redgram may be intercropped with spring planted surgarcane.
  • Ratio in Intercropping:
  • Redgram+Jowar/Maize/Pearlmillet = 1:2
  • Redgram+ Greengram/Black gram/Soybean/Groundnut = 1:7

Cropping Ratio
Seed Rate(Kg/Acre)
Redgram+Groundnut (1:7)
Redgram+Maize (1:2)

Some other Intercropping Systems:

  • Redgram+ Bhendi
  • Redgram+ Rainfed Paddy
  • Rabi Redgram+Chillies