There are two basic types of eggplant, based on shape.

  • The standard oval shape typified by 'Black Beauty' is characterized by an attractive, glossy black skin.
  • The oriental types are elongate, also with purple-black skin, and seem to have improved fruit set under a range of environmental conditions.
  • Quality of both is excellent. Fruit's skin colours include not only the black typical of commercial cultivars, but also golden yellow, white, light green, and brown, most of these used in home gardens.
  • Selection of variety is an important consideration in the cultivation of brinjal as the local preference varies considerably from region to region and even district to district.
  • A variety with a particular colour and size of the fruit fetching premium price in the market, may be totally rejected in another area.
  • Since the ultimate aim of the farmer is to get maximum return for his produce, judicial selection of the type with reference to market demands is very important in this crop.

CO 1

  • It is a pureline selection. Fruits are oblong and medium sized with pale green shade under white background.
  • The plants are compact and bushy. It has an yield potential of 20-25 tonnes/ha.
  • The fruits are soft seeded even at full maturity.
  • It was developed from the vegetable section of the Agricultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore.
  • It is preferred in the markets of southern districts of Tamil Nadu such as Tirunelveli and Ramanathapuram and also Karnataka State.

CO 2

  • This variety was developed at the Department of Vegetable Crops, College of Horticulture, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.
  • It is a pureline selection from local variety called varikkathiri in the village Negamam of Pollachi taluk, Coimbatore district.

Characteristics of important Brinal Varieties released in India

Breeding method
Fruit colour
Duration (Days)
Yield (MT)
Pusa Purple Long Pureline selection Light purple Oblong 120-135 25-37
Pusa Purple Round Pureline selection Purple Round 130-150 25-30
Kt 4 Selection Purple Cylindrical 120-130 30-37
Pusa Krati Selection Dark purple Oblong 130-140 25-35
Arka Sheel Pureline selection Deep purple Oblong 120 35-39
Arka Shirish Selection from Irangeri Light green Extralong 115-120 45-47
Arka Kusumakar Pureline selection Pale green Oblong 120-130 40-45
Arka Neelkanth Selection from local variety Violet blue Round 150-160 40-45
Arka Nidhi Selection from local variety Bluish black Oblong 150-160 45-48
Panjab Barsati Selection from local type Bluish purple Oblong 120-130 25-30
Panjab Neelum Selection from local variety Purple Oblong 130-145 25-30
Aruna Pureline selection from local Deep purple Round 150-160 25-30
Andhra Pradesh
APAU Gulabi Pureline selection Pale purple Oblong 160-165 23-25
APAU Bagyamathi Pureline selection Deep purple Oblong 145-150 25-30
APAU Shyamala Pureline selection Dark purple Round (small) 135-150 15-16
Tamil Nadu
CO 1 Pureline selection Pale green Oblong 140-150 20-25
MDU 1 Pureline selection Kallampatti Bluish purple Round 135-140 25-30
Anmnamalai Pureline selection Deep purple Oblong 130-145 20-22
CO 2 Pureline selection Varikkai Purple streak Oblong 150-160 30-35
PKM 1 Mutant from Puzhuthi kathan Green striped Oblong 130-140 25-30
PLR 1 Reselection from Nagpur Glossy purple Oval 120-135 20-25
KKM 1 Selection from Kolathur White Egg shaped 125-140 30-36
COBH 1 - Milky White Egg shaped 120-130 37
PPI1 Selection from Karungal local Pale green Oblong 185 45
Uttar Pradesh
Azad Kranti Pureline selection Dark purple Oblong 130-140 25-30

Brinjal Varieties recommended for different Agroclimatic zones of Tamil Nadu

North Eastern Zone PLR-1, Annamalai, CO 1 Cuddalore, Villupuram, Vellore, Chengulpet
North Western Zone CO 1, CO 2, PKM 1 Dharmapuri, Salem, Tiruvannamalai
Western Zone CO 1, CO 2, PKM 1 Coimbatore, Erode
Cauvery Delta Zone PLR-1, PKM 1, Annmalai Thanjavur, Pudukkottai, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam
Central Zone CO 1, PKM 1, PLR 1, CO 2 Trichy, Karur, Dindugal, Perambalur, Ariyalur
Southern Zone MDU 1, PKM 1, KKM 1, Co 1 Madurai, Ramnad, Sivaganai, Tirunelveli, Virudunagar
High Rainfall Zone KKM 1, CO 1, CO 2 Kanyakumari, Tuticorin
High altitude zone CO 1, CO 2, KKM 1 Pusa purple long Nilgiries

  • The plants are compact with slightly oblong fruits having dark purple streaks of different lengths and widths under pale green background without spines on the calyx surface.
  • It has a great preference in Coimbatore and Erode districts of Tamil Nadu.
  • It yields about 35 tonnes/ha in a crop duration of 150 days.


  • This was developed at the Department of Horticulture, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai.
  • The plants are vigorous and compact.
  • Fruits are round with large size each weighing about 200-250 g., bright purple in colour and have less seed content. As the fruit matures, the purple colour fades to pale pink.
  • It is a pure line selection from a local type called Kallampatti.
  • It has got an yield potential of 30 tonnes/ha in a crop duration of 135-140 days.
  • Preferred in Madurai and Trichy districts of Tamil Nadu and also in Kerala State.


  • This is an aphid resistant variety developed at the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu.
  • The fruits are oblong, deep purple in colour with a characteristic yellowish mark along the calyx border=1 and a few thorns on the calyx surface.
  • This is preferred in Cuddalore, Villupuram, Vellore, Thiruvannamalai and Cengalpet districts and Chennai market.
  • It has an yield potential of 20-22 tonnes/ha.


  • It was evolved at the Horticultural Research Station, Periyakulam of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University from a local type called 'Puzhuthi Kathiri' through mutation breeding.
  • It is adapted to rainfed cultivation in Madurai District.
  • The fruits are small and slightly oblong-ovate with green stripes.


  • This is a reselection from a Nagpur ecotype developed at the Vegetable Research Station, Palur of TNAU in Cuddalore district of Tamil nadu.
  • The fruits are small to medium in size, sometimes borne in clusters, egg shaped and with bright glossy purple colour.
  • It fetches premium price in the markets of Cuddalore, Changalpattu and Chennai.
  • It has got a shelf life of 8-10 days under ambient temperature.
  • It yields on an average 25 tonnes/ha.


  • This variety was developed through single plant selection from a local type collected from Kulathur area, at Department of Horticulture, Agricultural College, Killikkulam, Tirunelveli of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University.
  • The plants are compact bearing small sized white coloured egg shaped fruits in clusters of 2-4 with green calyx.
  • The potential yield is 36 tonnes/ha. This variety has got the best preference in Southern districts of Tamil Nadu.

Pusa Purple long

  • It was developed at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi through pureline selection.
  • Fruits are glossy, light purple in colour, 25-30 cm long and smooth.
  • It has an yield potential of 25-37 tonnes/ha.

Pusa Purple round

  • It was also evolved at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
  • The plants are very tall with a thick stem of greenish purple colour.
  • Leaves are highly serrated and deep green in colour.
  • Fruits are round with purple colour.
  • Each fruit weighs on an average 130-140 gram.

Azad Hybrid

  • It was developed at C.S. Azad Agricultural University at Kaliyanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh by a cross Azad B1 (Round) x Kaliyanpur Type 3 (round) in which the prolific bearing character has been contributed by the Kaliyanpur type 3 white colour, shape and fruit size by Azad B1.
  • The plants are semi-erect with 60-70 cm in spread, branched, leaf lamina green and entire, ealrly fruiting; fruits bold (190-200 g) bright purple, round, calyx green, thin, non fleshy and peduncle green.
  • The fruits retain their purple colour for a longer period and possess better shelf life.
  • The average yield is 45 tonnes/ha.
  • It is less prone to shoot and fruit borer infestation.

Hisar Shyamal (H8)

  • Developed at Hisar Agricultural University (HAU), Hisar by crossing Aushey x BR 112.
  • Plants are erect with purple green foliage from flowering onwards.
  • Fruits round, fleshy, bright purple with dark green purple pedicel.
  • This hybrid is resistant to bacterial wilt and tolerant to little leaf.

PPI(B)1 Brinjal

  • Year of release : 2001
  • A selection from Karungal local
  • Suitable for both irrigated and rainfed conditions. Solitary bearing with an average of 30 - 35 fruits per plant.
  • Excellent cooking quality without bitterness and minimum seeds.
  • Moderately resistant to shoot, fruit borer and wilt.
  • Yield 45 - 50 t/ha.


  • It is identified as a promising Mullukathiri local brinjal.


Duration : 120-130(days), Yield : 37ton/ha, Fruits are egg shaped with milky white colour, born in clusters of 2-4.