Distribution and Marketing


  • Distribution is an extremely important phase in the marketing of mangoes.
  • The fruit after harvest has to pass through several agencies before reaching the consumer.
  • Producers do not generally undertake wholesale distribution of mangoes, as it is a common practice to lease out the orchards to pre-harvest contractors-who take care of watch and ward of the crop till maturity and then dispose of the produce as it suits them.
  • Only a small number of producers have direct dealings with the consumers or sell their produce through the commission agents.
  • There is a wide disparity in the prices of standing crop from place to place and even from year to year in the same area and from one orchard to another.
  • It is mainly due to the irregular bearing habit of mango trees.
  • Income from mango growing, therefore is very uncertain.
  • Usually contractors are financed by commission agents or wholesalers.
  • Thus the contractor is obliged to sell the produce through the leading commission agents.
  • Sometimes they dispose of the produce directly to wholesalers or retailers.
  • Commission agents, generally known as arhatiyas or dalals also include the forwarding agents who own the responsibility of proper packaging and transit.
  • They are the most important link in the marketing of mango and about two-thirds of the total market is controlled by these agents.
  • They are located in both the assembling (producing) and consuming centers.
  • At some places they not only sell fruits on commission basis but also transact wholesale business on their own account.
  • In big cities like Bombay, Calcutta, Lucknow and Delhi, there are separate commission agents for imported fruits and for local produce.
  • Most of the raw material to processing industries is supplied by the commission agents.
  • Very few co-operative societies exist at present in mango-producing areas.
  • In Uttar Pradesh there is no such society, although it is the premier mango-producing state.
  • There are a few societies in Gujarat which purchase the farmers' produce and transport it to distant markets to the commission agents.
  • The marketing of mango in Bulsar district of Gujarat is mostly done by co-operative societies, of which all the growers including commission agents are members.
  • These advance about 50% of the cost to the grower and the balance is cleared immediately after his produce is sold.
  • The mango sale societies at Vengurla, Malva and Deogarh in Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra are functioning well.
  • They collect the produce of their members and send it for sale to the commission agents at Bombay.
  • The Government of Uttar Pradesh proposed to create Fruit Growers' Associations in all the districts under their Horticultural Development Scheme.
  • In Tamil Nadu, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh there are 10 co-operative societies for marketing of mangoes.
  • In Bihar there are only 2 fruit growers associations.
  • In Karnataka there is only the Mysore Horticulture Society to help the marketing of fruits.
  • The retail distribution is done by growers, contractors, commission agents and wholesalers, stall-holders, shop-keepers and hawkers in varying degrees.
  • A fairly large proportion of the profit is taken away by the intermediaries.
  • To ensure better returns to the growers, and fruits at cheaper rates to the consumers, formation of fruit grower's co-operative sale societies deserves encouragement.

Main Distribution and Marketing Centres

  • Mangoes grown in different parts of the country are transported to the big cities for marketing.
  • The fruits produced in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Tamil Nadu find markets in Nagpur, Mumbai, Calcutta and vice versa.
  • As per survey made by the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection (1965), the important wholesale mango markets in India are Calcutta, Delhi,Mumbai, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Pune and Nagpur.
  • Mangoes for these big markets are usually collected at the central places in all the mango-growing areas, e.g., in Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow and Varanasi; in Gujarat, Gandevi, Gadat and Amalsar talukas of Bulsar district; and in Maharashtra, Ratnagiri and Vengurla.
  • The survey has also shown that Delhi and Bombay are the most important markets for dispatch of mangoes.
  • At Delhi all the mangoes are assembled at Sabzimandi, Ashoka market, and at Bombay at Crawford and Byculla markets for distribution.

Price Structure

  • No official records or publication showing the prices of mangoes are available.
  • The growers seldom, if ever, maintain any record of their transactions and the same is the case with pre-harvest contractors.
  • The commission agents and wholesale merchants do keep accounts of their transactions, but little information is available from their books regarding the quality and the variety sole by them.
  • For a proper appraisal of prices, it is essential that these should relateto the standard quality and variety in each case.
  • Mango prices vary a great deal from year to year, depending upon each year's total production and various other factors like prevailing prices, demand, transport and marketing facilities.
  • Wholesale prices of mangoes also vary considerably, depending upon the supply and demand of particular varieties, periods of availability, weather conditions, transport facilities, variety, quality, etc.
  • Daily arrivals have also a direct bearing on the prices.
  • Thus the fluctuations in prices are of an irregular pattern.
  • Ordinarily, however, the prices are high at the commencement of the season, declining gradually as the supplies increase.
  • Later on, when the arrivals decrease, they tend to recovery and reach a high level again before the close of the season.
  • The following table shows month and variety-wise wholesale prices of mangoes at different assembling centres, as available from commission agents and marketing authorities.
  • There is no uniform pattern for price quotations.
  • The unit of sale, both in wholesale and retain trade, varies from place to place causing great confusion for comparing prices in different markets.
  • It is therefore desirable to standardize the unit of sale in different areas. Peak Mango Marketing Seasons for Various countries

Peak Mango Marketing Seasons for Various countries

Countries Peak mango marketing season
Brazil Year round
Burkina Faso March-July
Columbia Year round
Costa Rica March-September
Gambia May-July
Guatemala March-July
Guinea May-August
Ecuador November-February
Egypt August-October
India April-June
Indonesia May-August
Israel July-December
Cote d Ivories March-July
Jamaica May-October
Kenya Year round
Madagascar November-December
Mali March-July
Mexico April-December
Nicaragua April-July
Pakistan June-August
Peru September-May
Puerto Rico March-November
Senegal May-July
South Africa January-May
Spain September-December
Sudan June-August
Swaziland January-March
USA June-October
Venezuela Year round
Zambia January-March
Zimbabwe November-April


Andhra Pradesh