Soils and Climate

Soils Climate


Wheat is grown in a variety of soils in India. Well-drained loam and clay loams are good for wheat. How ever good crop of wheat are raised in sandy loams and black soils also. Soils should be neutral in reaction. Heavy soils with good drainage are suitable for wheat cultivation under dry condition. In India wheat growing areas can be divided into 5 soil divisions.

    1. The Gangetic alluvium of UP and Bihar.
    2. The Indus alluvium of the Punjab and Haryana.
    3. The black soil regions of Central and southern India comprising M.P, and parts of Maharashtra and Karnataka.
    4. The hilly regions of the Himalayas.
    5. The desert soils of Rajasthan.



  • Wheat has wide adaptability. It can be grown not only in tropical and sub tropical zones but also in temperate zones and the cold tracts of the far north. It can tolerate severe cold and snow.

  • It can be cultivated from sea level to as high as 3000m. The optimum temperature range for ideal germination of wheat seed is 20-25°C though the seed can germinate in the temperature range of 3.5 to 35°C.
  • It can be grown in regions where rainfall varies from 25 to 150cm/year. The wheat plants require medium (50-60%) humidity for their growth. But at the time of maturity crop requires less humidity land warm season. At the time of maturity the plants require 14-15°C.