India stands first in the world in Sugarcane and Sugar
production. Sugarcane is cultivated in about ten lakh
acres with 28.3 crores tonnes production. In Andhra Pradesh,
(Composite) Sugarcane crop is cultivated in 196 000' ha
with 156 lakh tonnes production. In this half of production
is useful for sugar preparation, for seed purpose and
rest is for Jaggery preparation.
In Andhra Pradesh (Composite) average yield per acre is 28 tonnes only. To
improve the yields and for serving the farming community
Nagarjuna Fertilizers and Chemicals Limited is giving
these hints to be followed to increase yields in Sugarcane
A growing season which is long and warm with adequate rainfall or irrigation, long hours of bright sunshine and higher relative humidity which permits rapid growth to build up adequate yield (more tonnage) and a ripening season of around 2-3 months duration having warm days, clear skies, cool nights and relatively a dry weather without rainfall and higher difference in day (maximum) and night (minimum) temperatures for build up of sugar are required.
Optimum time for Sugarcane planting is December to March month ending. For coastal districts it is January to Middle of March month, for Rayalseema it is January to February middle, in Telangana for Eksali crop during December to January middle, for Adsali crop it is August – September middle is the optimum time of planting.
Suitable Varieties for different situations
Late maturing varieties (12-13 months):
Co 7219, Co7706, Co8011, CoR8001.
Mid-late maturing varieties (11-12 months) :
CoA7602, CoT8201, Co7805, Co8021, 85R186, 86A146, 87A
397, 83V15, 83V288.
Early maturing varieties (9-10 months) :
Co6907, Co7505, 90A 272, 81A99, 82A123, 83A145, 81V48,
85A261, 86V96, 84A125, 91V83, 93V297, 83R23, 87A298.
Under Rainfed Conditions for planting in February:
Co6907, 81A99, 85A261, 81V48, 83R23, CoT820, CoA7602,
For Planting in May- June : Co6907, Co8013,
84A125, 85A261, 81A99, 87A298, 81V48, 91V83, 93V297.
For water logged (swamp) conditions: Co697,
84A125, CoR8001, 83V288, 83V15, 81V48, 91V83, 87A298,
85A261, 87A261, 87A397, 89V74.
For Moisture Stress conditions: Co6907,
CoT8201, CoA7602, Co7219, 84A125, 85A261, 83V15, 81A99,
83R23, 89V74, 83V288, Co7508.
For Redrot affected areas: Co7508, CoA7602,
Co8014, CoR8001, 85A261, 87A298, 90A272, Co6907, 86V96,
83R23, 91V83, 88R58, 92A126, Co7219, 86V96, Co7805, Co7706,
83V15, 89V74, 87A397.
Smut disease tolerant varieties: Co8013,
Co8014, 81A261, 84A125, 81A48, 83V15, 83V288, 83V96, 89V74,
93V297, 90A272, C07805, 86A146, 87A397.
For Jaggery preparation: Co7706
For Saline / Alkaline Soils : 81V48, 81A99,
Seeds and Sowing
Soils to be worked to fine tilth to a depth of 20cm at
least once in 2 to 3 years. Open trenches of 30cm width,
20cm depth and 50cm ridges have to be formed by manual
labour or iron plough or ridger. Spacing of 80cm between
cane rows for early varieties and 100cm for late varieties
is to be adopted.
Seed material / planting:
Immature seed material taken from tops of narrowed canes
or from entire canes of young crop of about 7 to 8 months
age is to be planted. 16000 three budded setts are to
be planted per acre. Water may be guided through planting
furrows and allowed to soak in the soil. Then seed setts
are to be planted walking backwards. The setts with the
buds turned to the sides are to be pressed into wet soil
to not more than 2.5cm depth. The depressions made in
the furrows by walking have to be levelled while proceeding
Dipping of setts, which are sufficient for one acre planting for 15minutes in a solution containing 150gms carbendazim and 600ml of malathion mixed in 300 litres of water before planting will control pineapple disease and scale insect.
To avoid grassy shoot disease hot water treatment of seed material at 520C for 30 minutes or treatment with aerated steam at 540C for 4 hours to be done.
Manures and Fertilizer application
Farmyard manure @ 10 tonnes per acre or press mud cake@ 5 tonnes per acre to be applied in the last ploughing.
At planting 2kg Azotobacter, 3.5kg phosphobacterium mixed
in 100kg powdered farm yard manure to be broadcasted in
one acre field. 250kg super phosphate and 80kg muriate
of potash to be applied at final ploughing and ridges
to be formed. At first wedding nitrogen in the form of
urea @ 100kgs, and at second weeding and earthing up time
urea @ 100kgs to be applied. There should be a gap of
90 days between last dose of nitrogen application and
harvesting which otherwise leads to loss of weight of
For ratoon crop double the dose of nitrogen to the above recommended dose to be applied in two equal split doses. One dose at stubble shaving time and second at 45 days later. With this first dose of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash are to be applied at the same dose as applied to the plant crop, as above.
Fertilizer recommendations to different districts
||Fertilizer dose (kg/acre)
||Time of application
| Medak Districts
|At planting phosphorus
and potash fertilizers to be applied. Nagarjuna Urea
in two equal splits at 45 and 90 days after planting.
phosphorus and potash fertilizers to be applied. Nagarjuna
urea in two equal splits at 60 and 150 days after
phosphorus and potash fertilizers to be applied. Nagarjuna
urea in three splits at 60, 120 and 180 days after
Irrigation and drainage :
Irrigation to be given once in a week during summer and once in 15-21 days after rainy season till harvest. If rains are more to avoid water stagnation in the field drainage to be provided.
Weed Management :
Application of Altrazine @ 2kg/acre in 200 litres of water to be sprayed on the 3 rd or 4 th day after planting depending on soil moisture will keep the weeds under control for 30days.
At 20 and 60 days of planting spraying of 2,4-D (1.5kg) + Gramoxone (1litre) per acre in 500 litres of water is recommended.
Earthing up and propping:
Earthing up at 4months after planting to be done to prevent lodging. Trash twist propping 2 to 3 times depending on the growth of the crop to be done to keep the crop erect as lodged canes loose about 25% juice sucrose, reduced cane yields and quality.
Early shoot borer : Deep planting of setts
in furrows. Application of phorate 10G granules @ 15kg/ha
at the time of planting. Trash mulching @ 3t/ha at 3 days
after planting in plant crop and immediately after stubble
shaving in ratoon crop. Irrigation at frequent intervals
during summer. Spraying endosulfan or chlorpyriphos @
2ml/litre of water at 4, 6 and 9 weeks after planting
in 450, 675 and 900 litres of water respectively will
control this pest.
Internode borer : If infestation is severe
during June-July, spray endosulfan @ 2ml/litre of water
twice at 15 days interval for its control.
Scale insect : Plant sap is sucked and
the plant is devitalised. Dipping three budded setts in
Malathion 0.1% or Dimethoate 0.05% for 15 minutes before
planting. Detrash the canes during the first week of July,
August and september retaining eight top leaves and spray
with Malathion or Dimethoate @ 2ml/litre of water for
control. Dimethoate is preferred for spraying during heavy
Mites : Red mite occurs in hot weather
immediately after summer showers. Spraying wettable sulphur
@ 3gms/litre of water twice at weekly intervals is recommended
for its control.
White flies : To control Endosulfan 2ml/litre
of water two times at 10 days intervals to be sprayed
to wet the bottom of the leaves.
Leaf hopper / canefly : Spray Malathion
or Endosulfan @ 2ml/litre of water.
Top rot : Spraying Mancozeb 3gms/lit or
Carbendazim 1gm/litre two to three times reduces the disease
Redrot : Damage due to red rot is two fold.
Reduction in cane yield and reduction in Sucrose content
of the Juice
Growing resistant varieties like Co7706, Co8013, CoA7602, Co8021, CoT8201, CoR8001, 85A261, 83A30, 90A272 and Co7219.
Smut : The affected plants are stunted
and the central shoot is replaced by a long whip-like,
dusty black structure.
Treating three budded setts in hot water at 520C for 30 minutes or aerated steam at 510C for two hours followed by dipping setts in carbendazim and raise special seed nurseries to avoid this disease.
Grassy shoot disease: Uproot and destroy
affected clumps. Severely affected plots should not be
ratooned. Select seed material from disease free plots.
Treat setts in hot water at 520C for 30 minutes and aerated
steam at 500C for one hour and raise special seed nursery.
Spray malathion or dimethoate @ 2ml/lit of water to check
Settrot / Pine apple disease : Carbendazim
solution to be prepared @ 150 gms in 300 litres of water
and dippling setts before planting in this solution reduces
the disease incidence.
Harvesting : The crop has to be harvested
when it contains a fairly high sucrose content of not
less than 16% in Juice with about 85% purity. After harvest
the cane has to be carted to the factory as early as possible.
technical advise contact :
K.V.K. Raju Krishi Vigyana Kendram,
Gandhi Nagar, Kakinada - 533 004. Phone: 0884 234651
Nagarjuna Fertilizers and Chemicals Limited
Nagarjuna Hills, Hyderabad-500 082. Tel. 9140 23357200/204/23358149