• Two distinguishable varieties of coconut are available (i.e.) tall and dwarf. Because of cross pallination in talls, variations occur within the same variety.
  • The characters that vary are height of the palm, colour, shape and size of the nuts, yield and quality of the copra.
  • Colour varies from green to shades of brown in talls. In dwarf types three district types are available.

They are

  • Green dwarf.
  • Yellow dwarf.
  • Orange dwarf

Tall variety

  • The tall variety is extensively cultivated in the State. The important characters of the tall varieties are :
  • The variety has a long and stout trunk with a swollen base which is called as bole.
  • It grows upto a height of 15-18 m.
  • The mature palm will be having 25-40 leaves on the crown.
  • The length of the fully opened leaf will be around 6m.
  • The palm lives upto a age of 80-90 years.
  • The palms come to bearing at the age of about 7 years.
  • It is a cross pollinating variety.
  • The palm yields copra, oil and fibre of good quality.
  • The inflorescence comes to maturity within 12 months after pollination.


Important Dwarf Varieties

Chowghat Green Dwarf (CGD)

  • It comes to bearing in three years.
  • The leaf length is around 2.9 m.
  • Self pollination is maintained because of the overlapping of male and female phases.
  • Setting percentage goes upto 70 percent.
  • Mean yield is 77 nuts per palm per year.
  • Mean copra weight is 92 g.
  • Copra is of poor quality, hard and leathery.
  • It has an oil content of 73.5 per cent.
  • At tender nut stage it has got a water content of 170-225 g per nut.
  • Seed nuts should be carefully preserved.
  • This variety is known as Pathinettampattai in Tamil Nadu.

Chowghat orange dwarf (COD)

  • The stem is with a small compact crown.
  • It comes to flowering four years after planting.
  • The number of leaves in the crown may vary from 20 to 28.
  • The length of the leaf is around 3.1 m.
  • Both self pollination and cross pollination are common.
  • The setting percentage is 78.
  • The average yield is 63 nuts per palm per year.
  • Tender nuts contain 340 to 510 g of sweet water.
  • The copra weighs 93g/nut.

Malayan yellow dwarf (MYD)

  • This is introduced from Malaysia.
  • The nuts, spadices and petioles are yellow in colour and the palm starts bearing 4-5 years after planting.
  • The mean yield is around 6 nuts/palm year.
  • The copra content is 167 g/nut. The oil content is 67 per cent.


  • It is a semi tall grown in some parts of the State.
  • It flowers about 44 months after planting.
  • The mean yield is 75 nuts/palm/year.
  • The copra weight is 98g.


Dwarf and Tall varieties

Chandra Sankara (COD x WCT)

  • It comes to bearing in 4-5 years after planting.
  • The mean annual yield is 108 nuts/palm/year.
  • The copra content is 187 g/nut the oil content is 68 per cent.

Chandra Kalpa (WCT x COD)

  • This comes to bearing in about 6 years.
  • The mean yield is about 109 nuts/palm.
  • The oil content is 69 per cent, The copra weight is 195g/nut.



Tall and dwarf hybrids

  • Veppankulam Hybrid Coconut (VHC)
  • VHC-1 (ECT x Malayan Green dwarf)
  • It comes to bearing in four years.
  • The average yield is 130 nuts/palm/year.
  • The copra content is 135 g/nut. The oil content is 69 per cent.


  • Highly suitable for Tamil Nadu
  • This hybrid comes to bearing in 5 years (43 months - time taken to flowering).
  • The mean yield is 147 nuts/palm/year.
  • The mean copra content is 150g/nut.
  • The oil content is 70 per cent and it is free from buckling problem (low buckling).
  • Height: 8.5 m (16 years old tree)
  • Morphological characters : Medium tall, thick trunk, semi circular, to circular, large crown
  • Nuts : Medium to big, oblong, green to light yellowish green in colour.


  • This hybrid comes to bearing in 5 years.
  • The mean yield is 160 nuts/palm/year.
  • The mean copra content is 208 g/nut.


Other Varieties Which are not Commercially used

Laccadive ordinary

  • This variety resembles the ordinary West Coast variety. The nuts are meidum-sized.
  • The yield per tree per annum is about 124 nuts.
  • The copra content is about 142 gm and the oil content in the copra is 72 per cent.

Cochin China

  • This is a robust palm giving nuts which are large-sized, spheroid in shape and coloured green to shades of brown. The water in the tender nuts is sweet and plentiful.
  • It yields about 86 nuts per tree per year. The copra is of fair quality and weighs about 227 gm per nut and has an oil content of 6 per cent.


  • This is a tall variety with a fairly stout trunk. The nuts are medium to large in size, round and somewhat elongated in shape.
  • It yields about 95 nuts per tree per year. The copra is of good quality. It has a copra content of 198 gm and on oil content of 66 per cent.

Ganga bondam

  • This is a dwarf variety and can be grown in a few areas of Kerala, Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh particularly for coconut water (milk).
  • This variety starts bearing from 4th year onwards.
  • The fruit shape is like papaya and the fruit bunches and leaves are green in colour.
  • It yields on an average 60 fruits per tree and having copra content of 148 gm and oil content of 68%.
  • It is used as breeding material in our State and also in other states.
  • To get hybrids this can be used as male parent to cross with tall varieties.

Philippines ordinary

  • This is a tall variety and yields more than indigenous varieties.
  • This is specially suited to east coastal regions of Andhra Pradesh.
  • It starts bearing at an age of 7 years .
  • It gives 130 fruits per tree.
  • This variety contains 160 gm of copra and has 64% of oil content.

Laccadive micro

  • Nuts are very small
  • Yield 160 nuts/year/palm
  • Average copra content 80 gm/nut
  • Oil content 75 per cent.
  • Coconut nurseries owned by Department of Agriculture, Government of Tamil Nadu, Coconut Research Stations, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University are the official sources selling coconut seedlings in large numbers.
  • A lot of private companies/entrepreneurs are producing coconut seedlings varieties (either Tall or hybrids) in Tamil Nadu.
  • The farmers are also widely using these varieties besides bringing materials (varieties) from Karnataka and Kerala.


Varieties suitable for Tamil Nadu

East Cost Tall (ECT)

  • It is commonly grown on the east coast of the state. The mean yield is about 80 nuts/palm/year
  • The mean copra content is around 125 g/nut. Oil content is 64 per cent.
  • As the nuts are small 7000-10,000 nuts are required to make 1 ton of copra.

West Cost Tall (ECT)

  • This grows well in all types of soil and has tolerance to moisture stress in the soil.
  • It starts yielding from 5 to 7 years after planting.
  • Variations in size, shape and colour of the nuts are observed.
  • The colour of the nut varies from green, yellow, yellowish orange to brown.

  • The average yield varies from 60-80 nuts/palm/year and it goes upto 140 nuts/palm/year in well managed conditions.
  • The mean copra content is 165 g per nut.
  • The oil content goes upto 72 per cent, nearly 6250 nuts are required to make one ton of copra when the nuts are medium size.
  • Except these two tall types which are predominantly grown in the State, some local types are also under cultivation in different parts of the state.

VPM-3 (Veppankulam - 3)

  • Andaman ordinary, a tall variety was released as VPM 3 during 1994.
  • The mean yield is 92 nuts/palm/ year.
  • The copra weight is 149 g/nut. The oil content is 70 per cent.
  • It is suitable for rainfed condition.
  • It gives yields more under irrigated conditions.

Morphological characters

  • Tall, circular trunk, round crown.


  • Oblong, enlarged at the base, green with orange tinge and large nuts.

Dwarf type

  • It occurs in most of the areas where tall variety is grown.

The important characteristics of the dwarf

  • It is short in stature.
  • It comes to bearing in 3-4 years.
  • It is self pollinating in nature.
  • It has a thin trunk with a swollen base.
  • The maximum height will be around 5m.
  • The economic life span is around 25-30 years.
  • The quality of the copra is poor.
  • It is mainly planted for tender coconut purpose
  • It is used for crossing programme with talls to produce hybrids.
  • In India dwarf types are classified as Javanica and Nana types.
  • Javanica types are vigorous palms coming to bearing in four years, either cross pollinating or self pollinating.
  • Purely self pollinting which comes to bearing in three years are called as Nana types.