Crisis Management

Introduction How To Increase Chillie Yields / Returns


  • Avoid nitrogen application in nurseries when the seedlings are over aged as this is found to have adverse effect on yields.
  • Availability of sufficient soil moisture during flowering is very essential to realise satisfactory yields. Damage done to the crop due to non-availability of soil moisture at this stage is irreversible.
  • Any stress at blossoming leads to flower and fruit drop. Flower drop is maximum on cloudy days. Spraying NAA (Planofix, furitfix or fixes, wardhak) @ 2-3 ml /10 litres of water to prevent flower and fruit drop starting from November.
  • If there is heavy rain after irrigation - plants start wilt-up due to excess moisture and the plant is unable to take the nutrients particularly nitrogen. Spraying of 2% Urea or Multi K 2% or Polyfeed 2% at 10 days intervals helps in feeding nitrogen through leaves.
  • Under rainfed and low fertility conditions better response was observed with Napthalene acetic acid (NAA)
  • Magnesium deficiency is very common under ill-drained conditions normally created in heavy soils with heavy rains. Under such conditions application of 5% Mg So4 as foliar spray and 1% urea helps in reducing this disorder.
  • Drain the excess water by providing drains without loss of time if there is stagnation of water due to heavy rains particularly in heavy soils.
  • Trim the tops if aged seedlings are to be transplanted.
  • Most of the viral diseases on chilli can be avoided if the vectors are effectively controlled.
  • Do not neglect manuring of soil since it is having lot of influence on soil and plant health.
  • In case of Zinc deficiency in chilli spray 2g ZnSo4/litre of water for 2-3 times at 4-5 days interval.
  • In case of Iron deficiency spray 5g FeSo4/litre of water in acidic medium for 2-3 times at 5-6 days interval.
  • In rainfed direct sown chilli, blade harrow is worked starting from 30th day of sowing four intercultivations are needed at 10 days interval alternated with blade harrow and tyned harrow or Junior hoe. This facilitates for better infiltration of rain water.
  • If the plants show symptoms of dropping leaves at 4.00pm, it is an indication that irrigation is needed.


How To Increase Chillie Yields / Returns

  • Select a good irrigated and drained field.
  • Avoid mono cropping - as it may harbour fusarial wilt and root knot nematode population.
  • Adopt crop rotation - as it reduces the risk of cost of production and controlls some diseases and pests which are specific to chillie.
  • Practice intercropping - as it gives beneficial effects to the main crop interms of production and protection.
  • Varietal selection - suitable to soil, climate, and pest and disease resistant.
  • Select virus resistant varieties.
  • Should know the varietal characters well in advance.
  • Seed treatment with suitable chemicals as per recommendation against specific problem. (Agrosan GN at one part in 500 parts of seed and to control damping off disease Sodium Ortho phosphate - virus disease).
  • Raising of seedbed nurseries in good environment of both soil and climate and should be located close to the source of water supply.
  • Timely and careful plant protection measures in the nursery.
  • The nursery beds should be in raised condition to avoid ill drainage and should be of 180 m x 1.2 m in length and width respectively to transplant one hectare of main field.
  • The nursery bed divided into 3m x 1.2 m so as to adopt better management practices without trampling the nursery.
  • Nursery should be mulched with leaves of palmyrah or paddy straw to avoid direct Sunlight and bird attack.
  • A week before sowing of nursery the seed should be sterilised with commercial Formalin (Formaledehyde 40%) 1:100 dilution at the rate of 5 litres per square meter against some nursery diseases.
  • Soil moisture at the time of transplanting should be optimum.
  • Plant the seedlings with 3-4 true leaves age, 4-5 weeks old and 10-15cm height only on ridges in well-irrigated areas
  • Put only 2 seedlings per hill to maintain optimum plant population. August is the best time for planting and the next best month is september. So plantings in these two months will boost the yields.
  • Top the leaves before transplantation which enhances the establishment of crop stand easily.
  • Topping also eliminate pod borers egg masses which are preferably laid on tender top leaves.
  • Topping should be done preferably in the cloudy day.
  • Seedling root dip of chilli with Azospyrillum for about 20-30 minutes (2 kg Azospyrillum in 10 litres of water) before transplanting


For rainfed crop:

15cm x 56 cm - 2 seedlings /hill

For irrigated crop

Light Soils: 45 cm x 75 cm - 2 seedlings / hill

Heavy Soils: 60cm x 60 cm - 2 seedlings / hill

  • To control fruit and flower drop spray NAA 2.5 ml / 10 lit of water at 40,60 and 75 DAT.

Fertilizer dosage

For rainfed crop

15 M.T of FYM / hectare

60 kg of N / hectare

30 kg of P / hectare

50 kg of K / hectare

Top dressing - 20-30 kg N / hectare for two equal splits.

For irrigated crop

15 MT of FYM / hectare

60 kg of N / hectar

60 kg of P / hectare

30 Kg of K / hectare

  • Top dressing of 20 kg N and 10kg K/ ha for 3 equal splits with 15 days interval.
  • Apply 25 kg of Zn So4/ha to avoid Zinc deficiency. Spray 2% Zn So4 on the crop (2g/1 lit of water)
  • Use only recommended doses of pesticides and other chemicals.
  • Abuse of pesticides directly show the impact on the Chillie export, as it contain pesticidal residues which impairs the quality export.
  • Irrigation should be given as per the recommendation and with critical stages of the crop
    • At the time of flowering ( 45 - 50 DAT)
    • At pod formation
  • Avoid excess irrigation as it causes severe diseases in the crop and promotes Fusarial wilt.
  • Periodical monitoring of fields to know the pest and disease incidence.
  • Take suitable control measures and follow integrated pest management / Integrated Nutrient Management.
  • Give 2-3 sprayings of multi micro nutrient mixtures as the crop is subjected to periodical nutrient deficiencies.
  • Fertigate the fields with suitable soluble fertilizers like potassium nitrate (Kno3-) (Multi - K) and potassium phosphate nitrate 19:19:19 (polyfeed) to boost the yields and quality concern.
  • For red chilli - harvest - first - picking as a green Chillie to enhance growth and uniform better yields of red chilli
  • Virus diseases are more in Chillie which are transmitted by insect vectors control measures towards these vectors are beneficial.
  • Spray systamic insecticides on bottom of leaves against sucking pest, which are transmitting all mosaic viruses in the crop.
  • Use pyrethroids only once during the crop period.
  • Based on ETL use integrated pest management methods (Mechanical, cultural, Biological and Chemicals method) instead of only insecticides.
  • Mites and thrips are the major insects which cause severe damage to the crop early control of these pests will boost the yields.
  • For control of pod borers use Integrated pest management methods like summer ploughing poison baiting and Nuclear polyhedrosis virus solution.

Poison bait preparations

Materials Required

    • 8 kg rice bran
    • 1 kg jaggery
    • 1 liter insecticide
    • Prepare small balls, broad-cost in the fields preferably in the evening times.

    Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV)

    • 200 larval equivalent solution can be used for one acre to control pod borers effectively
    • NPV solution + Jaggery + Teapol - Spray preferably at the evening times
    • Use of neem based chemicals against - sucking pest.
    • Timely harvest the produce and dried based on need and available resources.
    • Moisture percentage of the fruit at storage should be 10%, otherwise excess moisture leads to development of sooty mould and storage pests.
    • The stack of the fruit should not be detached from the fruit otherwise the needs of the fruit will lost and inturns affect the pungency and quality of Chillie.
    • Periodical grading of white Chillie (pale coloured Chillie inferior quality) from good red coloured Chillie and packed separately will fetch more price.
    • Market the produce in peak increasing trends of price by studying the periodic fluctuations and past experiences.


Andhra Pradesh